Regional and Local Journalism [index]

see also Newspaper Histories

New York State

Cressman, Dale.  “From Newspaper Row to Times Square: The Dispersal and Contested Identity of an Imagined Journalistic Community.”  Journalism History 34:4 (Winter 2009): 182-193.   NY City 

Follet, Frederick.  History of the Press of Western New York.  reprint edition.  Harrison, NY: Harbor Hill Books, 1973.

Fox, Louis H.  "New York City Newspapers, 1820-1850: A Bibliography."  Papers of the Bibliographic Society of America.  21, parts 1-2.  Chicago, 1927.

Hamilton, William W.  The Country Printer in New York State, 1785-1830.  Port Washington, NY: I.J. Friedman, 1964.

Chicago

Abramosko, Donald J.  "Victor Lawson and the Chicago Weekly News: A Defeat."  Journalism Quarterly 43 (Spring 1966): 43-48.

Andrews, Robert.  A Corner of Chicago.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1963.

Banning, Stephen A.  “Not Quite Professional: Bohemian and Elitist Newspaper Clubs in Nineteenth-Century Chicago.” Journalism History 40:1 (Spring 2014): 28-39.

Bekken, Jon E.  "Working Class Newspapers, Community, and Consciousness in Chicago, 1880-1930." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1992.

Bekken, Jon E.  "The Chicago Newspaper Scene: An Ecological Perspective."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 74 (1997): 490-500.

Dewey Johns, Elizabeth.  “Chicago’s Papers and the News.”  PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 1942.

Dornfield, A.A. Behind the Front Page: The Story of the City News Bureau of Chicago.  Chicago: Academy, 1983.

Erickson, John Edward.  "Newspapers and Social Values: Chicago Journalism, 1890-1910."  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.

Fedler, Fred. “Mrs. O’Leary’s Cow and Other Newspaper Tales About the Chicago Fire of 1871.” American Journalism 3 (1986): 24–38.

Green, N., S. Lacy, and Jean Folkerts.  "Chicago Journalists at the Turn of the Century: Bohemians All?"  Journalism Quarterly 66:4 (Winter 1989): 813-821.

Griffin, Dick, and Rob Warden, eds.  Done in a Day: 100 Years of Great Writing from the Chicago Daily News.  Chicago: Swallow Press, 1977.

Groeninger, David V.  “Chicago Imagined: The Role of Newspaper Columnists in Creating a City of the Mind, 1890–1930.”  PhD dissertation, Loyola University, 2005.

Junger, Richard. Becoming the Second City: Chicago’s Mass News Media, 1833-1898. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Klatt, Wayne.  Chicago Journalism: A History.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.

Lorenz, Larry. “The Whitechapel Club: Defining Chicago’s Journalists in the 19th Century.” American Journalism 15, no. 1 (1998): 83–102.

McPhaul, John J.  Deadlines and Moonshines: The Fabled World of Chicago Journalism.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1962.

Mayer, Gordon.  “Party Rags?: Politics and the News Business in Chicago’s Party Press, 1831-71.”  Journalism History 32:3 (Fall 2006): 138-146.

Peterson, Paul V.  “The Chicago Daily Herald: Righting the Historical Record.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Winter 1970): 697-701.

Rapoport, Ron, ed.  From Black Sox to Three-Peats: A Century of Chicago’s Best Sports Writing from the Tribune, Sun-Times, and Other Newspapers.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Schmidt, Royal.  “The Chicago Daily News and Illinois Politics, 1876-1920.” Phd dissertation, University of Chicago, 1957.

Sims, Norman H.  “The Chicago Style of Journalism.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1979.

Solomonson, Katherine.  The Chicago Tribune Tower Competition: Skyscraper Design and Cultural Change in the 1920s.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

East/New England

Boyd Hinds, Lynn.  Broadcasting the Local News: The Early Years of Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV.  University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.

Hamilton, Milton W.  The Country Printer.  Port Washington: I.J. Friedman, 1964.

Hixson, Richard F.  "The Founding of New Jersey's First Permanent Newspaper."  Journalism Quarterly 40 (Spring 1963): 233-235.

Humphrey, Carol Sue. "The Rhode Island Pillar: Rhode Island Newspapers and the Ratification of the Constitution." Rhode Island History 52 (1994): 48-57.

Miller, Alan Robert.  The History of Current Maine Newspapers.  Lisbon Falls, ME: Eastland Press, 1978.

Morse, Jarvis M.  Connecticut Newspapers in the Eighteenth Century.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1935.

Steirer, William.  “Philadelphia Newspapers: Years of Revolution and Transition, 1764-1974.”  PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1972.

Wyatt, James J. “Covering Suburbia: Newspapers, Suburbanization, and Social Change in the Postwar Philadelphia Region, 1945–1982.”  PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2012.

The South and Appalachia

Acheson, Sam.  News: 35,000 Days in Texas.  New York: Macmillan, 1938.

Allen, Charles L.  Country Journalism.  New York: Nelson, 1928.

Allsopp, Fred W.  History of the Arkansas Press for 100 Years and More.  Little Rock: Park-Harper Publishers, 1922.

Baker, Kathleen Ann.  "The Press that Cotton Built: Printing in Mobile, Alabama, 1850-1865."  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2004.

Cappon, James L.  Virginia Newspapers: A Bibliography and Historical Introduction.  New York: Appleton-Century, 1936.

Carter, Hodding.  Their Words Were Bullets: The Southern Press in War, Reconstruction, and Peace.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1970.

Casad, Dede W.  Texans Behind the News: Texas Journalists of the Twentieth Century.  Austin: Eakin Press, 2000.

Colistra, Rita. “The Rumble and the Dark: Regional Newspaper Framing of the Buffalo Creek Mine Disaster of 1972.” Journal of Appalachian Studies 16 (Spring–Fall 2010): 79–100.

Chute, Michael D.  "Clayton Thomas Rand and the Role of the Rural Press in the Development of Mississippi."  PhD dissertation, Southern Mississippi, 2001.

Clark, E. Culpepper.  "Francis Warrington Dawson: The New South Revisited." American Journalism 3:1 (1986): 5-23.  (Charleston News and Courier)

Clark, Thomas D.  The Southern Country Editor.  New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1948.

Cox, Patrick.  The First Texas News Barons.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

Cumming, Doug.  The Southern Press: Literary Legacies and the Challenge of Modernity.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2009.

Davies, David R., ed.  The Press and Race: Mississippi Journalists Confront the Movement.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001.*

Davis, Harold E. “‘A Brave and Beautiful City’: Henry Grady and the New South.” American Journalism 5 (1988): 131–44.

Dougan, Michael B.  Community Diaries: Arkansas Newspapering, 1819-2002.  August House Publishers, 2004.

Durham, Frank D.  "Anti-Communism, Race, and Structuration: Newspaper Coverage of the Labor and Desegregation Movements in the South, 1932-40 and 1953-61." Journalism and Communication Monographs 4:2 (Summer 2002).

Ellison, Rhoda C.  "Newspaper Publishing in Frontier Alabama."  Journalism Quarterly 23 (September 1946): 269-301.

Ellison, Rhoda C.  History and Bibliography of Alabama Newspapers of the Nineteenth Century.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1954.

Garrett Segura, Judith.  Belo: From Newspapers to New Media.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009.  (Texas NP history)

Garrigus, Carl E.  "Profit and the Press: Georgia Newspapers from the Stamp Act to the Nullification Crisis."  PhD dissertation, Georgia State University, 1997.

Gelsanliter, David.  Fresh Ink: Behind the Scenes at a Major Metropolitan Newspaper.  Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1995. (Dallas Morning News)

Griffith, Louis Turner, and John Erwin Talmadge.  Georgia Journalism 1763-1950.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1951.

Grimes, Millard B.  The Last Linotype: The Story of Georgia and its Newspapers Since World War II.  Macon: Mercer University Press, 1985.

Hollis, Daniel Webster, III.  An Alabama Newspaper Tradition: Grover C. Hall and the Hall Family.  Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1983.

Jean, Susan. “‘Warrented’ Lynchings: Narratives of Mob Violence in Southern White Newspapers, 1880–1940.” American Nineteenth Century History (London) 6 (September 2005): 351–72.

King, William L.  The Newspaper Press of Charleston, South Carolina.  Charleston: Lucas and Richardson, 1882.

Lauchlan, Angus.  “The Texas Liberal Press and the Image of White Texas Masculinity, 1938–63.”  Southwestern Historical Quarterly 110 (April 2007): 487–512.

McMullan, T. N.  Louisiana Newspapers, 1794-1961.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1965.

McMurtrie, Douglas C.  Early Printing in New Orleans, 1764-1810.  New Orleans: Searcy and Pfaff, 1929.

Margolies, Daniel S.  Henry Watterson and the New South: The Politics of Empire, Free Trade, and Globalization.  Knoxville: University Press of Kentucky, 2006.

Merriwether, James B., ed.  South Carolina Journals and Journalists.  Spartanburg: Southern Studies Program, University of South Carolina, 1975.

NeCamp, Samantha. “The Hazel Green Herald and the ‘Idea of Appalachia.’” Journal of Appalachian Studies 17 (Spring–Fall 2011): 66–84.

Osthaus, Carl R. Partisans of the Southern Press: Editorial Spokesmen of the Nineteenth Century.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

Skates, John Ray.  “From Enchantment to Disillusionment: A Southern Editor Views the New Deal.”  Southern Quarterly 5 (1967): 363-380.

Stafford, Thomas.  Afflicting the Comfortable: Journalism and Politics in West Virginia.  Morgantown: University of West Virginia Press, 2005.

Stem, Thad, Jr.  Tar Heel Press.  Charlotte: Heritage Printers, 1973.

Stroupe, Henry S.  The Religious Press in the South Atlantic States, 1802-1865.  Durham: Duke University Press, 1956.

Teel, Leonard Ray. “W.A. Scott and the Atlanta World.” American Journalism 6, no. 3 (1989): 158–78.

Tobin, Sidney.  “The Early New Deal in Baton Rouge as Viewed by the Daily Press.”  Louisiana History 10 (1969): 307-337.

Underwood, James Lowell.  Deadly Censorship: Murder, Honor, and Freedom of the Press.  Charleston: University of South Carolina Press, 2013.

Wheeler, Joseph Towne.  The Maryland Press, 1777-1790.  Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1938.

Williams, King E.  The Press of Alabama: A History of the Alabama Press Association.  Birmingham: Alabama Press Association, 1997.

Woody, Robert H.  The Republican Press of South Carolina.  Charlottesville: Historical Publishing Co., 1936.

Zimmer, Roxanne M.  "The Urban Daily Press: Baltimore, 1797-1816." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1982.

The "Frontier," the Midwest, and the West 

Abbott, Carl.  Boosters and Businessmen: Popular Economic Thought and Urban Growth in the Antebellum Middle West. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Ahmad, Diana. “Virginia City’s Fledgling Police Force Takes on Journalists and Opium, 1870s–1880s.” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 54 (nos. 1–4, 2011): 126–141.

Allen, Charles L.  Country Journalism.  New York: Nelson, 1928.

Alter, J. Cecil.  Early Utah Journalism.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1970.  reprint of 1936 edition.

Armstrong, Robert D.  “‘Impenetrable Obscurity’: The Comptroller, the Secretary, and Territorial Printing.”  Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 99 (September 2005): 411–25.

Armstrong, Robert D. “‘I Scornfully Rejected the Terms’: Wyoming Territory’s Public Printing, 1870–74.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 101 (March 2007): 73–89.

Bennion, Sherlyn Cox. Equal to the Occasion: Women Editors of the Nineteenth Century West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1990.

Berens, Charlyne, and Nancy Mitchell. “Parallel Tracks, Same Terminus: The Role of Nineteenth-Century Newspapers and Railroads in the Settlement of Nebraska.” Great Plains Quarterly 29 (Fall 2009): 287–300.

Bernhardt, Mark.  “The Selling of Sex, Sleaze, Scuttlebutt, and other Shocking Sensations: The Evolution of New Journalism in San Francisco, 1887-1900.” American Journalism 28:3 (Fall 2011): 111-142.

Boles, Frank. “Michigan Newspapers: A Two-Hundred-Year Review.” Michigan Historical Review 36 (Spring 2010): 31–69.

Brier, Warren J., and Nathan Blumberg.  A Century of Montana Journalism.  Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1971.

Brinegar, David F.  "Arizona's First Chain Journalists."  Journal of Arizona History 24 (Spring 1983): 73-88.

Butler, James H.  "Indiana Newspapers, 1829-1860."  Indiana Magazine of History 22 (September 1926): 297-333.

Cloud, Barbara. The Business of Newspapers on the Western Frontier. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992.

Cloud, Barbara.  The Coming of the Frontier Press: How the West was Really Won.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2008.

Collins, Ross F.  “Cattle Barons and Ink Slingers: How Cow Country Journalists Created a Great American Myth.”  American Journalism 24:3 (Summer 2007): 7-29.

Dagenais, Julie.  "Newspaper Language as an Active Agent in the Building of a Frontier Town." American Speech 42-2 (May 1967): 114-121.

Dary, David.  Red Blood and Black Ink: Journalism in the Old West.  New York: Knopf, 1998.

Doll, Louis W.  A History of Newspapers of Ann Arbor, 1829-1920.  Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1958.

Eldredge, Michael S. “William Glasmann: Ogden’s Progressive Newspaperman and Politician.” Utah Historical Quarterly 81 (Fall 2013): 304–324.

Endres, Fred F.  "We Want Money and Must Have it: Profile of an Ohio Weekly, 1841-1847."  Journalism History 7 (Summer 1980): 68-71.

Evans, James F.  “Clover Leaf: The Good Luck Chain, 1899-1973.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Autumn 1969): 482-491.  Midwest regional newspaper chain

Fry, John J.  The Farm Press, Reform and Rural Change, 1895-1920.  New York: Routledge, 2005.

Garza, Melita M.  “Sword and Cross in San Antonio: Reviving the Spanish Conquest in Depression-Era News Coverage.”  Journalism History 39:4 (Winter 2014): 198-207.

Gilluly, Sam.  The Press Gang: A Century of Montana Newspapers, 1885-1985.  Helena: Montana Press Association, 1985.

Gragg, Larry Dale. “Protecting a City’s Image: The Death of Las Vegas Beat, 1961.” Studies in Popular Culture 34 (Fall 2011): 1–22.

Gribben, Brian. “Waving the Bloody Newsprint: Partisan Coverage of Populism in Ellis County, Kansas, 1891–1896.” Heritage of the Great Plains 44 (Summer 2011): 5–13.

Gutgesell, Stephen, ed.  Guide to Ohio Newspapers, 1793-1973.  Columbus, 1974.

Hage, George S.  Newspapers on the Minnesota Frontier, 1849-1860.  St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1967.

Halaas, David F.  Boomtown Newspapers: Journalism on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1981.

Hamilton, James F.  "Newspapers, Migration, and Small Town Culture." Journalism History 14 (Spring 1987): 78-85.

Hartley, Robert E. “The East St. Louis Journal and Its Soldiers in the War on Crime, 1945–1965.” Journal of Illinois History 13 (Autumn 2010): 166–188.

Heuterman, Thomas H.  "Assessing the 'Press on Wheels:' Individualism in Frontier Journalism."  Journalism Quarterly 53 (Autumn 1976): 423-428.

Highton, Jake.  Nevada Newspaper Days: A History of Journalism in the Silver State.  Tracy, CA: Heritage West Books, 1990.

Homsher, Lola.  A Guide to Wyoming Newspapers, 1867-1967.  Cheyenne: Wyoming State Library, 1971.

Hooper, Osman C.  The History of Ohio Journalism, 1793-1933.  New York: Macmillan, 1924.

Huefner, Michael S., and Shauna Anderson Young. “Joseph E. Johnson: Author of Frontier News, Promotion, and Progress.” Great Plains Quarterly 33 (Summer 2013): 141–159.

Huntzicker, William E.  "Historians and the American Frontier Press." American Journalism 5 (1988): 28-47.

Johnson, Michael K.  Hoo-Doo Cowboys and Bronze Buckaroos: Conceptions of the African-American West.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2014.

Karolovitz, Robert F.  Newspapering in the Old West.  New York: Bonanza Books, 1965.

Karolovitz, Robert F.  With a Shirt Tail Full of Type: The Story of Newspaper in South Dakota.  Brookings: South Dakota Press Association, 1982.

Katz, William A.  "The Western Printer and His Publications, 1850-1890."  Journalism Quarterly 44 (Winter 1967): 708-714.

Keen, Elizabeth.  " Wyoming Frontier Newspapers."  Annals of Wyoming 33 (October 1961): 133-158.

Keen, Elizabeth.  "Wyoming Frontier Newspapers: The Newspapermen."  Annals of Wyoming 34 (April 1962): 61-84.

Kerstetter, Todd.  “Mobocratic Feeling”: Religious Outsiders, the Popular Press, and the American West.”  American Journalism 20:1 (Winter 2003): 57-72.

Kingenfelter, Richard E., and Karen Rix Gash.  The Newspapers of Nevada: A History and Bibliography, 1854-1979.  Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1984.

Kinley, Kylie. “Growing Up on the Farm: Nebraska Farm Youth Pages, 1904–1965.” Nebraska History 90 (Winter 2009): 170–179.

Kirk, Andrew Taylor.  “Dens of Hell in the Cities of Zion: Newspaper Coverage of Opium Abuse in Territorial Utah, 1869-96.” Journalism History 35:4 (Winter 2010): 229-237.

Lorenz, Alfred Lawrence.  "Out of Sorts and Out of Cash:'  Problems of Publishing in Wisconsin Territory, 1833-1848."  Journalism History 3 (Summer 1976): 34-39, 63.

Lynn, William H.  The Pioneer Editor in Missouri.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1965.

Lyon, William H.  "The Significance of Newspapers on the American Frontier."  Journal of the West (1980): 3-13.

Lyon, William H.  Those Old Yellow Dog Days: Frontier Journalism in Arizona 1859-1912.  Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994.

McLaws, Monte B.  Spokesman for the Kingdom: Early Mormon Journalism and Desert News, 1830-1898.  Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1977.

McMurtrie, Douglas C., and Albert H. Allen.  Early Printing in Colorado.  Denver: Hirschfield Press, 1935.

McNay, John T.  “Breaking the Copper Collars: Press Freedom, Professionalism, and the History of Montana Journalism.”  American Journalism 25:1 (winter 2008): 99-123.

McWilliams, James.  Mark Twain in the St. Louis Post Dispatch, 1874-1891.  Albany: Winston Publishing Co., 1997.

Mahoney, Timothy R.  "The Rise and Fall of the Booster Ethos in Dubuque, 1850-1861."  Annals of Iowa 61 (Fall 2002): 371-419.

Miles, George.  “The Press in the West: A Roundup of Recent Work.”  Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 99 (September 2005): 445–58.

Miner, Craig.  “Editor Clumer Buys a Press.” Kansas History 30 (Summer 2007): 92–111.

Moehring, Eugene P.  “Promoting the Varied Interests of the New and Rising Community: The Booster Press on Nevada’s Mining Frontier, 1859-1885.”  Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 42 (Summer 1999): 91-118.

Mueller, James E.  Shooting Arrows and Slinging Mud: Custer, the Press, and the Little Bighorn.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Myers, John M.  Print in a Wild Land.  New York: Doubleday, 1967.  (The West)

Nichols, Roger L.  "Printers' Ink and Red Skins: Western Newspapermen and the Indians."  Kansas Quarterly 3 (Fall 1971): 82-88.

Norton, Wesley.  Religious Newspapers of the Old Northwest to 1861.  Athens: Ohio University Press, 1977.

Oehlerts, Donald E.  Guide to Wisconsin Newspapers: 1833-2000.  Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 2002.

Perkin, Robert L.  The First Hundred Years: An Informal History of Denver and the Rocky Mountain News.  New York: Doubleday, 1959.

Reed, V. Delbert.  "A Last Hurrah for the Frontier Press." American Journalism 6 (1989): 65-85.

Reilly, Hugh J. Native American: Yesterday and Today: The Frontier Newspapers and the Convergence of the Plains Indian Wars. (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010)

Russell, F.A.  "The Newspaper and Periodical Publishing Industry in Illinois from 188-1915."  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1916.

Russo, David J. "The Origins of Local News in the U.S. Country Press, 1840s-1870s." Journalism Monographs, no. 65 (Feb. 1980).

Scharlott, Bradford W.  "The Influence of the Telegraph on Wisconsin Newspaper Growth."  Journalism Quarterly 66 (Autumn 1989): 710-715.

Schmitt, Jo Ann.  Fighting Editors: The Story of Editors Who Faced Six-shooters with Pens and Won.  San Antonio: The Nagler Co., 1958.

Scott, Frank W.  Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879.  Springfield: Illinois State Historical Library, 1910.

Sibley, Marilyn M.  Lone Stars and State Gazettes: Texas Newspapers Before the Civil War.  College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1983.

Sim, John C.  The Grass Roots Press: America's Community Press.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1969.

Simpson, Lee M. A., ed.  "Boosterism in the West."  Journal of the West 42 (Fall 2003).  Special Issue

Sloan, Wm. David. "The Frontier Press, 1800-1900: Personal Journalism or Paltry Business?" in Perspectives in Mass Communication History.  Hillsdale, NJ, 1991.

Stratton, Porter A.  The Territorial Press of New Mexico, 1834-1912.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969.

Swibold, Dennis.  “Anaconda Sheds Its Press: The Story behind the Company’s Decision to Sell Its Newspapers.”  Montana 56 (Summer 2006): 2–15.

Swibold, Dennis L.  Copper Chorus: Mining, Politics, and the Montana Press, 1889-1959.  Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 2006.

Tórrez, Robert J., ed.  New Mexico in 1876-1877: A Newspaperman’s View; The Travels and Reports of William D. Dawson. Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande Books, 2007.

Tracy, James F.  "From Blueprint to Reality: The Dubuque Leader's Transformation under Cooperative Ownership."  American Journalism 19 (Fall 2002): 95-119.

Vergobbi, David J.  "Oh, That Proper Mix: Selective Boosterism on the North Idaho Mining Frontier Society." American Journalism 14:3-4 (1997): 475-94.

Wirth, Eileen.  From Society Page to Front Page: Nebraska Women in Journalism.  Lincoln: Bison Books, 2013.

Zimmerman, Richard Z.  Plain Dealing: Ohio Politics and Journalism.  Kent: Kent State University Press, 2006.

Pacific Coast

Baldasty, Gerald J.  Vigilante Newspapers: A Tale of Sex, Religion, and Murder in the Northwest.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Belknap, George N.  "Oregon Sentinel Extras, 1858-1864."  Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70 (October 1979): 178-

Brier, Warren J.  "A History of Newspapers in the Pacific Northwest, 1846-1896."  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967.

Bruce, John R.  Gaudy Century: The Story of San Francisco's Hundred Years of Robust Journalism.  New York: Random House, 1943.

Carey, Arthur C.  "Effects of the Pony Express and the Transcontinental Telegraph Upon Selected California Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly 51 (Summer 1974): 320-323.

Carter, John Benton.  "Before the Telegraph: The News Service of the San Francisco Bulletin, 1855-1861."  Pacific Historical Review 11 (September 1942): 301-317.

Chandler, Robert J.  "The California News-Telegraph Monopoly 1860-1870."  Southern California Quarterly 58 (Winter 1976): 459-484.

Chapin, Helen Geracimos.  "From Makaweki to Kohala: The Plantation Newspapers of Hawaii."  Hawaiian Journal of History 23 (1989): 170-195.

Cronin Lamonica, Mary. "Fighting for the Farmers: The Pacific Northwest's Nonpartisan League Newspapers."  Journalism History 23:3 (Summer 1997): 126-136.

Ethington, Philip J.  The Public City: The Political Construction of Urban Life in San Francisco, 1850-1900. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994). (Chapter on newspaper press)

Firebaugh, Dorothy Gile.  "The Sacramento Union: Voice of California, 1851-1875."  Journalism Quarterly 30 (Summer 1953): 321-330.

Gottlieb, Robert, and Irene Wolt.  Thinking Big: The Story of the Los Angeles Times, Its Publishers, and Their Influence on Southern California.  New York: Putnam, 1977.

Hall, Mark W.  “The San Francisco Chronicle: Its Fight for the 1879 Constitution.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Autumn 1969): 505-510.

Hall, Mark W.  "Journalism in California: The Pioneer Period, 1831-1849."  Journal of the West 10 (October 1971): 624-636.

Hall, Mark W.  "1831-49: The Pioneer Period for Newspapers in California."  Journalism Quarterly 49 (Winter 1972): 648-655.

Jolly, Michelle E.  "The Price of Vigilance: Gender, Politics, and the Press in Early San Francisco."  Pacific Historical Review 73 (November 2004): 541-579.

Kemble, Edward C.  A History of California Newspapers 1846-1858.  Los Gatos: Talisman Press, 1962.

Meany, Edmond S.  Newspapers of the Washington Territory.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1923.

Read, Simon.  War of Words: A True Tale of Newsprint and Murder.  New York: Union Square Press, 2009.  (SF Chronicle)

Splitter, Henry W.  "Newspapers of Los Angeles: The First Fifty Years, 1851-1900."  Journal of the West 2 (October 1963): 435-458.

Stevens, Errol Wayne. “Two Radicals and Their Los Angeles: Harrison Gray Otis and Job Harriman.” California History 86: 3 (2009): 44–64.

Turnbull, George S.  A History of Oregon Newspapers.  Portland: Binfords and Mort, 1936.

Wagner, Rob L.  Red Ink, White Lies: The Rise and Fall of Los Angeles Newspapers, 1920-1962. Upland, CA: Dragonfly Press, 2000.

Young, John P.  Journalism in California.  San Francisco: Chronicle Publishing, 1915.