Alternative and Minority Media [index]

The Black Press

Native American Press

Spanish Language Press

Ethnic and Foreign Language Press

Alternative and "Underground" Press

The Black Press and Broadcasting

Aiello, Thomas.  “The Shot That Was Heard in Nearly Two Million Negro Homes: The 1934 Murder of William Alexander Scott.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 100:4 (2016): 366-403.

Alexander, Ann F.  "Black Protest in the New South:  John Mitchell, Jr. (1863-1929) & the Richmond Planet," PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1973.

Alexander, Shawn Leigh.  "Marcus Garvey and the Chicago Defender, 1917-1923."  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1995.

Alexander, Shawn Leigh, ed. T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880–1928.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Alkebulan, Paul.  The African-American Press in World War II: Toward Victory at Home and Abroad.  Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.  Add to minority

Anderson, Daniel Roger.  “Renaissance Men: The Harlem Intelligentsia, the African–American Press, and the Culture of Sport, 1918–1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2005.

Bacon, Jacqueline.  "The History of Freedom's Journal: A Study in Empowerment and Community."  Journal of African American History 88 (Spring 2003): 163-181.

Bacon, Jacqueline.   Freedom’s Journal: The First African American Newspaper. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2007.  

Bacon, Jacqueline. “‘Acting as Freemen’: Rhetoric, Race, and Reform in the Debate over Colonization in Freedom’s Journal, 1827–1828.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 93 (February 2007): 58–83.

Bailey, Julius H.  Race Patriotism: Protest and Print Culture in the AME Church.  Knoxville: University Press of Tennessee, 2012.

Baldasty, Gerald J., and Mark E. LaPoint.  "The Press and the African-American Community: The Role of the Northwest Enterprise in the 1930s."  Pacific Northwest Quarterly 94 (Winter 2002-2003): 14-26.

Banner-Haley, Charles Pete.  "The Philadelphia Tribune and the Persistence of Black Republicanism During the Great Depression."  Pennsylvania History 65:2 (Spring 1998): 190-202.

Baum, Bruce, and Duchess Harris, eds.  Racially Writing the Republic: Racists, Race Rebels, and Transformations of American Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

Beard, Richard L., and Cyril E. Zoerner.  “Associated Negro Press: Its Founding, Ascendency, and Demise.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Spring 1969): 47-52.

Bederman, Gail.  "Civilization,' the Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells's Antilynching Campaign (1892-94).  Radical History Review 52 (1992): 5-30.

Beito, David T., and Linda Royster Beito.  “Selling Laissez-faire Antiracism to the Black Masses: Rose Wilder Lane and the Pittsburgh Courier.”  Independent Review 15:2 (Fall 2010): 279-294.

Berardi, Gayle K., ad Thomas W. Segady.  "The Development of African American Newspapers in the American West: A Sociohistorical Perspective."  Journal of Negro History 75 (Summer/Fall 1990): 96-111.

Berardi, Gayle, and Thomas W. Segady. "Community Identification and Cultural Formation:  The Role of African American Newspapers in the American West, 1880-1914." Briot 10:1 (Spring 1991): 13-19.

Blain, Keisha N.  “We Want to Set the World on Fire: Black Nationalist Women and Diasporic Politics in the New Negro World, 1940-1944.”  Journal of Social History 49:1 (Fall 2015): 194-212.

Blocker, Jr., Jack S.  "Building Networks:  Cooperation and Communication Among African Americans in the Urban Midwest, 1860-1910." Indiana Magazine of History 99:4 (December 2003): 370-386.

Bowie, Rian Elizabeth. “Is There a Woman in the Text? The Black Press and the Emergence of Organized Black Womanhood, 1827–1900.”  PhD dissertation, Emory University, 2007.  

Boyd, Melba Joyce.  Wrestling with the Muse: Dudley Randall and the Broadside Press.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.  

Brooks, Maxwell R.  The Negro Press Re-Examined: Political Content of Leading Negro Newspapers (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1959).

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  Giving Voice to the Voiceless: Four Pioneering Black Women Journalists.  New York: Routledge, 2004.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  “Exhortation to Action: The Writings of Amy Jacques Garvey, Journalist and Black Nationalist.”  Journalism History 32:2 (Summer 2006): 87-95.

Brown, Karen F.  "The Black Press of Tennessee: 1865-1980." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1982.

Brown, Kory B.  “Souled Out: Ebony Magazine in an Age of Black Power, 1965-1975.”  PhD dissertation, Howard University, 2010.

Bullock, Penelope.  The African-American Periodical Press, 1838-1909. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Burroughs, Todd S.  "Drums in the Global Village: Toward an Ideological History of Black Media."  PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, 2001.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick.  "Who Killed the Negro World?: An Investigation into the Death of a Dissident Newspaper." Journal of Ethnic Studies, 9 (1981), 1-12.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick. "In Common with Colored Men, I Have Certain Sentiments: Black Nationalism and Hilary Teage of the Liberia Herald."  American Journalism 16:3 (1999): 17-35.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick.  “Caught in the Crosswinds of the Atlantic: John Brown Russwurm, Freedom’s Journal, and African Colonization.  Journalism History 37: 3 (Fall 2011): 130-141.

Byers, Stephen Robert.  "Diverse Community, Diverse Newspapers:  How Milwaukee's Black Press Reflected its Diversity, 1968-2002."  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2004.

Carlisle, Anthony Todd. “The Black Press and the Shaping of Protest in African American Literature, 1840–1935.”  PhD dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

Carroll, Brian.  "When to Stop Cheering?  The Black Press, the Black Community, and the Integration of Professional Baseball."  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2003.

Carroll, Brian.  The Black Press and Black Baseball, 1915-1955: A Devil’s Bargain.  New York: Taylor and Francis, 2015.

Carter, Julette B. "The Role of the Black Press in the 1923 Trial of Marcus Mosiah Garvey."  American Journalism 14:2 (1997): 131-47.

Castro, Cristian. “White Paper, Black Ink: The Black Press of Sao Paulo and Chicago, 1900–1950.” PhD dissertation, University of California, Davis, 2013.

Chapman, Erin D.  Prove it on Me: New Negroes, Sex, and Popular Culture in the 1920s.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Chase, Hal.   "Honey for Friends, Stings for Enemies': William Calvin Chase and The Washington Bee, 1882-1921." PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1973.

Clark, Naeemah, edAfrican Americans in the History of Mass Communication: A Reader.  New York: Peter Lang, 2014.

Clark, Tanya N.  "Quilting the Race:  Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, the Colored American Magazine, & the African American Family, 1900-1905." PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2004.

Clark, William E. "A Pioneer Negro Newspaper:  The New York Age." Southern Workman 52 (January 1923): 16-20.

Cohen, Lara L., and Jordan Alexander Stein, edsEarly African American Print Culture.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.

Cooper, Caryl A.  “The Chicago Defender: Filling in the Gaps for the Office of Civilian Defense, 1941-1945.”  Western Journal of Black Studies 23:1 (1999): 111-118.

Cooper, Caryl.  “Selling Negro Women to Negro Women and the World: Rebecca Stiles Taylor and the Chicago Defender, 1939-1945.”  Journalism History 39:4 (Winter 2014): 241-249.

Cronin, Mary M. "A Chance to Build for Our Selves: Black Press Boosterism in Oklahoma, 1891-1915."  Journalism History 26:2 (Spring 2000): 71-80.

Cronin, Mary M. "Mixing Protest and Accommodation:  The  Response of Oklahoma's Black Town Newspaper Editors to Race Relations, 1891-1918." American Journalism 19:2 (Spring 2002): 45-64.

Cronin, Mary M.  “C.F. Richardson and the Houston Informer’s Fight for Racial Equality in the 1920s.” American Journalism 23:3 (Summer 2006): 79-103.

Crowder, Ralph L.  "Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and John Edward Bruce:  The Relationship of a Militant Black Journalist with the 'Father of Civil of Rights' and the 'Wizard of Tuskegee'." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 22:2 (July 1998): 91-110.

Daniel, Walter.  Black Journals of the United States.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Daniel, Walter C., and Patrick J. Huber. "The Voice of the Negro and the Atlanta Riot of 1906: A Problem in Freedom of the Press."  Journalism History 17:1-2 (Spring-Summer 1990): 23-28.

Dann, Martin E. ed., The Black Press, 1827-1890: The Quest for National Unity.  New York: Putnam, 1971.

Davis, Henry Vance.  "The Black Press: From Mission to Commercialization, 1827-1927."  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990.

Dawkins, Wayne.  Black Journalists: The NABJ Story. Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 1993. (National Association of Black Journalists)

Dawkins, Wayne.  Rugged Waters: Black Journalists Swim the Mainstream.  Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 2003.

DeSantis, Alan Douglas.  "Selling the American Dream: The Chicago Defender and the Great Migration of 1915-1919." PhD dissertation, University of Indiana, 1993.

DeSantis, Alan D. "A Forgotten Leader: Robert S. Abbott and the Chicago Defender from 1910-1920."  Journalism History 23:2 (Spring 1997): 63-71.

Detweiler, Frederick.  The Negro Press in the United States.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922.

Digby-Junger, Richard.  "The Guardian, Crisis, Messenger, and Negro World:  The Early-20th-Century Black Radical Press."  Howard Journal of Communications 9:3 (July 1998):  263-282.

Dillon, Merton L.  Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966.

Dolan, Mark K. “Dave Peyton, the Chicago Defender, and Local 208.” Journal of Illinois History 11 (Autumn 2008): 154–148.

Domke, David. "The Black Press in the 'Nadir' of African Americans." Journalism History 20:3-4 (1994):131-138.

Drake, Donald E., II, "Militancy in Fortune's New York Age." Journal of Negro History 55:4 (1970): 307-322.

Ellis, Mark. “America’s Black Press, 1914-1918.”  History Today 41 (September 1991): 20-27.

Ellis, Charlesetta M.  "Robert S. Abbott's Response to Education for African-Americans via the Chicago Defender, 1909-1940." PhD dissertation, Loyola University, 1994.

Enszer, Julie R.  “Fighting to Create and Maintain Our Own Black Women’s Culture: Conditions Magazine, 1977-1990.  American Periodicals 25:2 (2015): 160-176.


Fagan, Benjamin P.  The Black Newspaper and the Chosen Nation.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2016.

Farrar, Hayward.  The Baltimore Afro-American. 1892-1950.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Fee, Frank E., Jr.  "Intelligent Union of Black and White: Frederick Douglass and the Rochester Press, 1847-48."  Journalism History 31:1 (Spring 2005): 34-45.

Finkle, Lee. Forum for Protest: The Black Press During World War II. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1975.

Fishkin, Shelley Fisher, and Carla L. Peterson.  “We Holds These Truths to be Self-Evident: The Rhetoric of Frederick Douglass’s Journalism.”  In Frederick Douglass: New Literary and Historical Essays, Eric Sundquist,ed.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Fleener, Nickieann.  "Breaking Down Buyer Resistance: Marketing the 1935 Pittsburgh Courier to Mississippi Blacks."  Journalism History 13:3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1986): 78-85.

Forss, Amy Helene.  Black Print With a White Carnation: Mildred Brown and the Omaha Star Newspaper, 1938-1989.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014.

Foster, Frances Smith. “Genealogies of Our Concerns, Early (African) American Print Culture, and Transcending Tough Times.” American Literary History 22 (Summer 2010): 368–380.

Foster Greene, Debra.  "Published in the Interest of Colored People: The St. Louis Argus Newspaper in the 20th Century."  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 2003.

Franklin, Vincent P.  "The Voice of the Black Community: The Philadelphia Tribune, 1912-1941."  Pennsylvania History 51:4 (October 1984): 261-284.

Frisken, Amanda K.  “A Song Without Words: Anti-Lynching Imagery in the African-American Press, 1889-1898.”  Journal of African-American History 97:3 (Summer 2012): 240-269.

Fultz, Michael. "'The Morning Cometh':  African-American Periodicals, Education, and the Black Middle Class, 1900-1930." Journal of Negro History 80:3 (Summer 1995): 97-112.

Gallon, Kim T. “Between Respectability and Modernity: Black Newspapers and Sexuality, 1925–1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

Gallon, Kim.  “Silences Kept: The Absence of Gender and Sexuality in Black Press Historiography.” History Compass 10:2 (February 2012): 207-218.


Gardner, Eric.  Black Print Unbound: The Christian Recorder, African American Literature, and Periodical Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Gershenhorn, Jerry.  “Double V in North Carolina: The Carolina Times and the Struggle of Racial Equality during World War II.”  Journalism History 32:3 (Fall 2006): 156-167.

Gershenhorn, Jerry. “A Courageous Voice for Black Freedom: Louis Austin and the Carolina Times in Depression-Era North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 87 (January 2010): 57–92.

Glick, Josh.  “Mixed Messages: D. W. Griffith and the Black Press, 1916-1931.”  Film History 23 (2011): 174-195.

Goeser, Caroline. Picturing the New Negro: Harlem Renaissance Print Culture and Modern Black Identity.  Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2006.

Gordon, Eugene. "The Negro Press." Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 140 (November 1928): 248-256.

Grose, Charles W.  "Black Newspapers in Texas, 1868-1970."  MA thesis, University of Texas, 1972.

Grossman, James R.  "Blowing the Trumpet: The Chicago Defender and Black Migration During World War I." Illinois Historical Journal 78:2 (Summer 1985): 82-96.

Green, Adam.  Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Guthrie, Ricardo Antonio. “Examining Political Narratives of the Black Press in the West: Dr. Carlton B. Goodlet and the San Francisco Sun-Reporter (1950s–1960s).”  PhD dissertation, University of California- San Diego, 2006.

Guven, Erdem.  “The Image and the Perception of the Turk in Freedom’s Journal,” Journalism History 41:4 (Winter 2016): 191-199.

Hall, Calvin L.  African-American Journalists: Autobiography and Memoir and Manifesto.  Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2009.

Hall, Nora D.  "On Being an African-American Woman:  Gender and Race in the Writings of Six Black Women Journalists, 1894-1936." PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998.

Haram, Kerstyn M. “The Palmetto Leader’s Mission to End Lynching in South Carolina: Black Agency and the Black Press in Columbia, 1925–1940.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 107 (October 2006): 310–33.

Heitner, DevorahBlack Power TV.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2013.

Hellwig, David J.  "The Afro-American Press and US Involvement in Cuba, 1902-1912."  Mid-American 72 (April/July 1990): 135-145.

Hirsch, Paul M. “An Analysis of Ebony: The Magazine and Its Readers.” Journalism Quarterly 45 (Summer 1968): 261-270.

Hodges, Graham Russell Gao, David Ruggles: A Radical Black Abolitionist and the Underground Railroad in New York City.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Hogan, Lawrence D.  A Black National News Service: The Associated Negro Press and Claude Barnett, 1915-1945. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1983.

Horne, Gerald.  The Rise and Fall of the Associated Negro Press: Claude Barnett’s Pan-African News and the Jim Crow Paradox.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton.  In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community, and Protest Among Northern Free Blacks, 1800-1860.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Howard-Pitney, David.  "Calvin Chase's Washington Bee and Black Middle-Class Ideology, 1882-1900."  Journalism Quarterly 63 (1986): 89-97.

Howard-Pitney, David.  "The Enduring Black Jeremiad: The American Jeremiad and Black Protest Rhetoric from Frederick Douglass to W.E.B. DuBois, 1841-1919."  American Quarterly 38 (1986): 481-192.

Huddle, Mark A., Ed. Roi Ottley’s World War II: the Lost Diary of an African American Journalist. (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2011)

Hughes, Langston.  Langston Hughes and the Chicago Defender: Essays on Race, Politics, and Culture 1942-1962.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Hutton, Frankie.  "Social Morality in the Antebellum Black Press."  Journal of Popular Culture 26 (Fall 1992): 71-84.

Hutton, Frankie.  The Early Black Press in America, 1827-1860. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Hyman, Mark J.  "Afrocentric Leanings of Black Church Owned Newspapers from Mid-Nineteenth Century to World War I." PhD dissertation, Temple University, 1991.

Jackson, Debra.  "A Cultural Stronghold: The Anglo-African Newspaper and the Black Community of New York."  New York History 85 (Fall 2004): 331-357.

Jacobs, Donald M., edAntebellum Black Newspapers.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976.  (Indices to Freedom's Journal, The Weekly Advocate, and The Rights of All)

James, Winston.  The Struggles of John Brown Russwurm: The Life and Writings of a Pan-Africanist Pioneer, 1799-1851.  New York: New York University Press, 2010.

Jin-Ping, Wu.  Frederick Douglass and the Black Liberation Movement: The North Star of American Blacks.  New York: Garland, 2000.

Johnson, Abby A., and Ronald M. Johnson.  "Away from Accommodation: Radical Editors and Protest Journalism, 1900-1910."  Journal of Negro History 62:4 (October 1977): 325-338.

Johnson, Abby Arthur, and Ronald M. Johnson.  Propaganda and Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the 20th Century.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.

Johnson, Charles S.  "The Rise of the Negro Magazine." Journal of Negro History 13 (January 1928): 7-21.

Johnson, James Wesley.  "The Associated Negro Press: A Medium of International News and Information, 1919-1967."  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1976.

Jones, Allen W.  "The Black Press and the New South: Jesse C. Duke's Struggle for Justice and Equality."  Journal of Negro History 64 (1979): 221-225.

Jones Ross, Felicia G.  "Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers' Response to the Great Migration." Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Autumn 1994): 531-539.

Jones, Felecia G., and Joseph P. McKerns.  "Depression in the Promised Land: The Chicago Defender Discourages Migration, 1929-1940."  American Journalism 21:1 (Winter 2004): 55-73.

Jones Ross, Felicia.  “The Cleveland Call and Post and the Election of Carl B. Stokes.”  Journalism History 33:4 (Winter 2008): 215-223.

Jordan, William G.  Black Newspapers and America's War For Democracy, 1914-1920.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Kessler, Lauren.  The Dissident Press: Alternative Journalism in American History.  Beverley Hills: Sage Publications, 1984.

Kirschke, Amy Helene, and Phillip Luke Sinitiere, edsProtest and Propaganda: W.E.B. Du Bois, the Crisis, and American History.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2014.

Kiuchi, YuyaStruggles for Equal Voice: The History of African American Media Democracy.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2012. 

Klassen, Terasa C., and Owen V. Johnson.  "Sharpening of the Blade: Black Consciousness in Kansas, 1892-97."  Journalism Quarterly 63 (Summer 1986): 298-304.

Kornweibel, Theodore.  No Crystal Stair: Black Life and The Messenger.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1975.

Kornweibel, Theodore, Jr.  "The Most Dangerous of all Negro Journals: Federal Efforts to Suppress the Chicago Defender During World War I."  American Journalism 11:2 (Spring 1994): 257-269.

Kreiling, Albert.  "The Making of Racial Identities in the Black Press: A Cultural Analysis of Race Journalism in Chicago, 1878-1928."  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.

Lemons, J. Stanley and Diane Lambert.  “John Carpenter Minkins: Pioneering African-American Newspaperman.” New England Quarterly 76:3 (2003): 413-438.

Long, Mia Chandra. “Seeking a Place in the Sun: Sepia Magazine’s Endeavor for Quality Journalism and Place in the Negro Market, 1951–1982.”  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2011.

McCluskey, Audrey T.  "Representing the Race:  Mary McLeod Bethune and the Press in the Jim Crow Era." Western Journal of Black Studies 23:4 (Winter 1999): 236-245.

McGhee, Flora A. C.  "Mississippi Black Newspapers:  Their History, Content, and Future." PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1985.

McKivigan, John R. “Stalwart Douglass: Life and Times as Political Manifesto.” Journal of African American History 99 (Winter–Spring 2014): 46–55.

McMillen, Neil R.  "Black Journalism in Mississippi: The Jim Crow Years." Journal of Mississippi History 49:2 (May 1987): 129-138.

Mace, Darryl.  In Remembrance of Emmett Till: Regional Stories and Media Responses to the Black Freedom Struggle.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2014.

Magliulo, Myrna Colette. “Andrew J. Smitherman: A Pioneer of the African American Press, 1909–1961.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 34 (July 2010): 119–153.

Mangun, Kimberley.  “Boosting the Bottom Line: Beatrice Morrow Cannady’s Tactics to Promote The Advocate, 1923-1933.” American Journalism 25:3 (Summer 2008): 31-69. 

Mangun, Kimberly.  Editor A.D. Griffin: Envisioning a New Age for Black Oregonians (1896-1907).” American Journalism 26:3 (Summer 2009):  55-92.

Marks, George P., edThe Black Press Views American Imperialism (1898-1900).  New York: Arno Press, 1971.

Matthews, John M.  “Black Newspapermen and the Black Community in Georgia, 1890-1930.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 68 (Fall 1984): 356-381.

Meier, August.  "Booker T. Washington and the Negro Press: With Special Reference to the Colored American Magazine."  Journal of Negro History 38 (January 1953): 67-90.

Michaeli, Ethan.  The Defender: How the Legendary Black Newspaper Changed America from the Age of the Pullman Porters to the Age of Obama.  New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016.

Mikel, Daniel P.  "A History of Negro Newspapers in Minnesota, 1876-1963." M.Ed., Macalester College, 1963.

Mindich, David T.Z. "Understanding Frederick Douglass: Toward a New Synthesis Approach to the Birth of Modern American Journalism." Journalism History 26:1 (Winter 2000): 15-22.

Mitchell, Patricia Pugh. "Negating the Nadir: 'The Smoky City' Newspaper Series as a Forum for Black Perspectives."  Western Pennsylvania History 89 (Winter 2006-2007): 32-47.

Morris, Burnis R.  Carter G. Woodson: History, the Black Press, and Public Relations.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2017.

Muhammad, Baiyina W.  "'What is Africa to Us'?  The Baltimore Afro American's Coverage of the African Diaspora, 1915-1941." PhD dissertation, Morgan State University, 2004.

Myrdal, Gunnar.  An American Dilemma. New York: Harper and Row, 1944.   pp. 908-924 on the black press

Neal, Diane.  "Seduction, Accommodation, or Realism?  Tabbs Gross and the Arkansas Freeman."  Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48 (Spring 1989): 57-64.

Newman, Richard, Patrick Rael, and Phillip Lapsansky, edsPamphlets of Protest: An Anthology of Early African-American Protest Literature, 1790-1860.  New York: Routledge, 2000.

Newman, Richard.  "Protest in Black and White: The Formation and Transformation of an African American Political Community During the Early Republic,"  in Jeffrey L. Pasley, Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds.  Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Page, Yolanda Williams, ed.  Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers.  2 vols.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.

Paz, Dennis G.  "John Albert Williams and Black Journalism in Omaha, 1895-1929."  Midwest Review 10 (Spring 1988): 14-32.

Peeples, Matthew.  “Creating Political Authority: The Role of the Antebellum Black Press in the Political Mobilization and Empowerment of African-Americans.”  Journalism History 34:2 (Summer 2008): 76-86.

Perry, Earnest Lee, Jr.  "Voice of Consciousness: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association During World War II."  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1998.

Perry, Earnest L., Jr.  "A Common Purpose: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association's Fight for Equality During World War II."  American Journalism 19 (Spring 2002): 31-43.

Perry, Earnest.  "We Want In:  The African-American Press's Negotiation for a White House Correspondent."  American Journalism 20 (Summer 2003): 31-47.

Pinnick, Timothy N.  Finding and Using African-American Newspapers.  Wyandotte, OK: Gregath Publishing, 2008.

Pride, Armistad S.  A Register and History of Negro Newspapers in the United States, 1827-1950.  Ann Arbor: University Microfilm, 1979.

Pride, Armistad S. and Clint C. Wilson. A History of the Black Press. Washington DC: Howard University Press, 1997.

Rathbun, Betty Lou K.  "The Rise of the Modern American Negro Press, 1880-1914."  PhD dissertation, State University of New York-Buffalo, 1979.

Reisler, Jim.  Black Writers- Black Baseball: An Anthology of Articles from Black Sportswriters who Covered the Negro Leagues.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.

Rhodes, Jane. "Race, Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press."  Journalism History 20:3-4 (1994):95-106.

Rhodes, Jane.  Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Rooks, Noliwe M.  Ladies' Pages: African American Women's Magazines and the Culture that Made Them.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Ross, Felicia Jones.  "The Cleveland Call and Post and the New Deal: A Change in African-American Thought." Journalism History 19:3 (Autumn 1993):87-92 .

Ross, Felicia Jones.  "Preserving the Community: Cleveland Black Papers' Response to the Great Migration."  Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Fall 1994): 531-539.

Ross, Felicia Jones.  "Fragile Equality: A Black Paper's Portrayal of Race Relations in late 19th Century Cleveland."  Howard Journal of Communications 6: 1/2 (October 1995): 53-68.

Ross, Felicia Jones. "The Brownsville Affair and the Political Values of Cleveland's Black Newspapers."  American Journalism 12:2 (1995): 107-22.

Sarr, Amanda.  Black Arkansas Newspapers, 1869-1975: A Check List.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1975.

Savage, Barbara Diane.  Broadcasting Freedom: Radio, War and the Politics of Race, 1939-1948.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Schechter, Patricia A.  Ida B. Well-Barnett and American Reform, 1880-1930.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Sealander, Judith.  “Antebellum Black Press Images of Women.”  Western Journal of Black Studies 6 (Fall 1982): 159-165.

Shelton, Vanessa. “Interpretive Community and the Black Press: Racial Equality and Politics in The St. Louis American and The St. Louis Argus, 1928–1956.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 2007.  

Sklaroff, Lauren Rebecca. Black Culture and the New Deal: The Quest for Civil Rights in the Roosevelt Era.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Slagle, Mark.  “Mightier Than the Sword? The Black Press and the End of Racial Segregation in the U.S. Military, 1948–1954.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2010.

Snorgrass, J. William. "The Baltimore Afro-American and the Election Campaigns of FDR."  American Journalism 1:2 (1984): 35-50.

Snorgrass, J. William. "The Black Press and Political Alliances: The Turning Point, 1928." Western Journal of Black Studies 10:3 (Fall 1986): 103-108

Stevens, John D. "The Black Press and the 1936 Olympics."  American Journalism 14:1 (1997): 97-102.

Stevens, Summer E., and Owen V. Johnson.  "From Black Politics to Black Community: Harry C. Smith and the Cleveland Gazette."  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 1090-1102.

Stovall, Mary E.  "The Chicago Defender in the Progressive Era."  Illinois Historical Journal 83:3 (Autumn 1990): 159-172.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  Raising Her Voice: African American Women Journalists Who Changed History.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

Strother, T. Ella.  "The Black Image in the Chicago Defender, 1905-1975."  Journalism History 4:4 (1977-78): 137-141, 156.

Suggs, Henry L., ed The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Suggs, Henry, L. edThe Black Press in the South, 1865-1983.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Sullins, William S., and Paul Parsons.  "Roscoe Dunjee: Crusading Editor of Oklahoma's Black Dispatch, 1915-1955."  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992):204-13.

Taylor, David V. "John Quincy Adams:  St. Paul Editor and Black Leader." Minnesota History 43:8 (1973): 282-296.

Teel, Leonard Ray. "W.A. Scott and the Atlanta World."  American Journalism 6:3 (1989): 158-78.

Teel, Leonard Ray. "The African-American Press and the Campaign for a Federal Antilynching Law, 1933-34."  American Journalism 8:2-3 (1991): 84-107.

Teel, Leonard Ray. "The Jazz Rage: Carter G. Woodson's Culture War in the African-American Press."  American Journalism 11:4 (1994): 348-58.

Teresa, Carrie.  “We Needed a Booker T. Washington…and Certainly a Jack Johnson: The Black Press, Johnson, and the Issue of Representation, 1909-1915.”  American Journalism 32:1 (Winter 2015): 23-40.

Thompson, Julius E.  Percy Greene and the Jackson Advocate: The Life and Times of a Radical Conservative Black Newspaperman, 1897-1977.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.

Thornbrough, Emma Lou. "American Negro Newspapers, 1880-1914." Business History Review 40:4 (Winter 1965):  457-490

Thorton, Brian.  “Pleading Their Own Cause: Letters to the Editor and Editorials in Ten African-American Newspapers, 1929-30.”  Journalism History 32:3 (Fall 2006): 168-178.

Tripp, Bernell Elizabeth.  Origins of the Black Press, New York, 1827-1842.  Northport, Ala.: Vision Press, 1992.

Tripp, Bernell E. "Black Women Journalists, 1825-1860."  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 1993.

Tyler, Bruce.  "Zoot Suit Culture and the Black Press."  Journal of American Culture 17 (Summer 1994): 21-34.

Vincent, Theodore G., edVoices of a Black Nation: Political Journalism in the Harlem Renaissance.  San Francisco: Ramparts, 1973.

Vogel, Todd, edThe Black Press: New Literary and Historical Essays.  New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Wade-Giles, Gloria.  "Black Women Journalists in the South, 1880-1905."  Callaloo 11-13 (February-October 1981): 138-151.

Wagner, Venise.  “Activity Among Negroes: Race Pride and a Call for Interracial Dialogue in California’s East Bay Region, 1920-31.”  Journalism History 35”2 (Summer 2009): 82-90.

Walters, Enoch P.  American Diary: A Personal History of the Black Press.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Walters, Ronald G. “The Negro Press and the Image of Success: 1920-1939.”  Midcontinent American Studies Journal 11:2 (Fall 1970): 36-55.

Washburn, Patrick S.  A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government’s Investigation of the Black Press During World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Washburn, Patrick S. "The Black Press: Homefront Clout Hits a Peak in World War II."  American Journalism 12:3 (1995): 359-66.

Washburn, Patrick S.  The African American Press: Voices of Freedom.  Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2007.

Weaver, Billy L. "The Educative Role of Black Newspapers, 1920-1930."   PhD dissertation, Indiana University, 1979.

West Davidson, James.  They Say: Ida B. Wells and the Reconstruction of Race.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Williams, Nudie E. "The Black Press in Oklahoma: The Formative Years, 1889-1907.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 61:3 (Fall 1983): 308-319.

Wiggins, David K.  "Wendell Smith, the Pittsburgh Courier Journal and the Campaign to Include Blacks in Organized Baseball, 1933-1945." Journal of Sport History 10:2 (Summer 1983): 5-29.

Williams, Gilbert A.  "The Role of the Christian Recorder in the African Emigration Movement, 1854-1902."  Journalism Monographs 111 (April 1989).

Williams, Gilbert A.  Legendary Pioneers of Black Radio.  Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

Wilson, Clint C.  Black Journalists in Paradox: Historical Perspectives and Current Dilemmas.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Wolseley, Roland E.  The Black Press: U.S.A.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1990.

Wyatt-Brown, Bertram.  Lewis Tappan and the Evangelical War Against Slavery.  New York: Atheneum, 1971.

Yingling, Charlton W.  No One Who Reads the History of Hayti Can Doubt the Capacity of Colored Men: Racial Formation and Atlantic Rehabilitation in New York City's Early Black Press, 1827-1841.” Early American Studies 11:2 (Spring 2013): 314-348.

Young, Sandra S.  "A Different Journey: John Brown Russwurm, 1799-1851."  PhD dissertation, Boston College, 2004.

Zackodnik, Teresa.  “Memory, Illustration, and Black Periodicals: Recasting the Disappearing Act of the Fugitive Slave in the ‘New Negro’ Woman.” American Periodicals 25:2 (2015): 139-159.

Native American Press

Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed.  Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture.  Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

Coward, John M.  “Explaining the Little Bighorn: Race and Progress in the Native Press.”  Journalism Quarterly 71:3 (Autumn 1974): 540-549.
Coward, John M. “Promoting the Progressive Indian: Lee Harkins and The American Indian Magazine.” American Journalism 14, no. 1 (1997): 3–18.

Coward, John M. The Newspaper Indians: Native American Identity in the Press, 1820-1890. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Emery, Jacqueline A. “Writing against Erasure: Native American Boarding School Students and the Periodical Press, 1880–1920.”  PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2011.

Holland, Cullen Joe.  Cherokee Newspapers, 1828-1906: Tribal Voice of a People in Transition.  James P. Pate, ed.  Cherokee Heritage Press, 2015.

Lacourse, Richard.  "An Indian Perspective- Native American Journalism: An Overview."  Journalism History 6 (1979): 34-38.

Loew, Patty. "Natives, Newspapers, and 'Fighting Bob': Wisconsin Chippewa in the 'Unprogressive' Era."  Journalism History 23:4 (Autumn 1997): 149-158.

Murphy, James E. and Sharon M. Murphy. Let My People Know: American Indian Journalism, 1828-1978. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981.

Murphy, Sharon.  "Neglected Pioneers: 19th Century Native American Newspapers."  Journalism History 4 (Autumn 1977): 79-82.

Perdue, Theda, ed Cherokee Editor: The Writings of Alias Boudinot.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983.

Trahant, Mark N.  Pictures of Our Nobler Selves: A History of Native American Contributions to News Media.  Nashville: Freedom Forum Press, 1995.

Weston, Mary Ann.  Native Americans in the News: Images of Indians in the Twentieth Century Press.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Winnemucca Hopkins, Sarah.  The Newspaper Warrior: Sarah Winnemucca Hopkins’s Campaign for American Indian Rights, 1864-1891.  Carolyn Sorioso and Cari M. Carpenter, eds.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.

Ethnic and Foreign Language Press

Anderson, Arlow William.  The Immigrant Takes his Stand: The Norwegian-American Press and Public Affairs, 1847-1952.  Northfield, Minn.: Norwegian-American Historical Association, 1953.

Arndt, Karl J., and May E. Olson.  German-American Newspapers and Periodicals, 1732-1955: History and Bibliography.  Heidelberg, GER: Quelle & Meyer, 1961.

Backlund, Jonas Oscar.  A Century of the Swedish-American Press.  Chicago, 1952.

Björk, Ulf Jonas. “Perhaps There Is Someone Who Wants to Know How We Live: ‘Public’ Immigrant Letters in Swedish-American Newspapers.” Swedish-American Historical Quarterly 56 (April-July 2005): 183–97.

Björk, Ulf-Jonas. “Find Wealth or Freeze to Death: The Swedish-American Press and the Klondike Gold Rush.” Swedish-American Historical Quarterly 64 (July 2013): 107–130.

Broadbent, T.L.  "The German Language Press in California: Record of a German Immigration."  Journal of the West 10 (October 1971): 637-661.

Bytwerk, Randall L.  "Julius Streicher and the Early History of Der Sturmer, 1923-1933."  Journalism History 5:3 (Autumn 1978): 74-79.

Capps, Finis Herbert.  From Isolation to Involvement: The Swedish Immigrant Press in America, 1914-1945.  Chicago: Swedish Pioneer Historical Society, 1966.

Cazden, Robert A.  A Social History of the German Book Trade in America to the Civil War.  Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1984.

Chroust, David Zdenek.  “Bohemian Voice: Contention, Brotherhood, and Journalism among Czech People in America, 1860–1910.” PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2009.

Connolly-Smith, Peter.  Picturing America: An Immigrant Press Visualizes American Popular Culture, 1890-1918.  Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004.

Conolly-Smith, Peter.  “Transforming an Ethnic Readership Through Word and Image: William Randolph Hearst’s Deutsches Journal and New York’s German-Language Press, 1895-1918.”  American Periodicals 19:1 (2009): 66-84.

Cutter, Charles.  "The American Yiddish Daily Press Reaction to the Rise of Nazism, 1930-1933."  PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 1979.

Dolmetsch, Christopher L.  The German Press of the Shenandoah Valley.  Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1984.

Edelman, HendrickThe Dutch Language Press in AmericaNiewkoop:  De Graef Publishers, 1986.

Geitz, Henry, ed., The German-American Press. Madison: Max Cade Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1992.*

Hagy, N. W., and Van Ruynbeke, B. "The French Refugee Newspapers of Charleston." South Carolina Historical Magazine 91 (1996): 29-46.

Hardt, Hanno.  “Foreign Language Press in American Press History: An Essay.”  Journal of Communication 39:3 (Spring 1989): 114-131.

Hoffman, Matthew. “The Red Divide: The Conflict between Communists and Their Opponents in the American Yiddish Press.” American Jewish History 96 (March 2010): 1–31.

Hunter, Edward.  In Many Voices: Our Fabulous Foreign Language Press.  Norman Park, GA: Norman College, 1961.

Hutton, Frankie, and Barbara Straus Reed, edsOutsiders in 19th Century Press History: Multicultural Perspectives.  Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Press, 1995.

Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D. “‘Everybody Writes’: Readers and Editors and Their Interactions in the Polish-Language Press, 1922–1969.” Journal of American Ethnic History 33 (Fall 2013): 35–69.

Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.  The Polish Hearst: Ameryka-Echo and the Public Role of the Immigrant Press.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015.

Joyce, William Leonard.  Editors and Ethnicity: A History of the Irish-American Press, 1848-1883.  New York: Arno Press, 1976.  (reprint of Phd dissertation, University of Michigan, 1974)

Karlowich, Robert A. We Fall and Rise: Russian Language Newspapers in New York City, 1889-1914.  Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.

Kelman, Ari Y.  Station Identification: A Cultural History of Yiddish Radio in the United States.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.

Kessler, Lauren.  The Dissident Press: Alternative Journalism in American History.  Beverley Hills: Sage Publications, 1984.

Kieswetler, Renate.  "German American Labor Press: The Verbote and Chicago Arbiter-Zeitung." in Harmut Kiel, ed., German Worker's Culture in the United States. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.

Kessler, Lauren.  "Fettered Freedoms: The Journalism of the World War II Japanese Internment Camp."  Journalism History 15 (Summer-Autumn 1988).

Lipinsky, Seth.  The Rise of Abraham Cahan.  New York: Schocken, 2013.

Lo, Karl, and H.M. Lai, edsChinese Newspapers Published in North America, 1854-1875.  Washington DC: Center for Chinese Research Materials, 1976.

Luther, Catherine A.  "Reflections of Cultural Identities in Conflict: Japanese American Internment Camp Newspapers During World War II."  Journalism History 29:2 (Summer 2003): 69-81.

Marzolf, Marion.  “The Pioneer Danish Press in Midwest America, 1870-1900.”  Scandinavian Studies 48:4 (1976): 426-440.

Marzolf, Marion T.  The Danish Language Press in the United States.  New York: Arno Press, 1979.

McMahon, Cian T. “Caricaturing Race and Nation in the Irish American Press, 1870–1880: A Transnational Perspective.” Journal of American Ethnic History 33 (Winter 2014): 33–56.

Melendez, A. Gabriel.  Spanish-Language Newspapers of New Mexico, 1834-1958.  Mesa: University of Arizona Press, 2005.

Miller, Sally M., edThe Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987.*

Nunez, Arturo Romero. “Freedom’s Journal and El Clamor Público: African American and Mexican American Cultural Fronts in Nineteenth Century Newsprint.”  PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2010.

Olszyk, Edmund G.  The Polish Press in America.  Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1940.

Park, Robert E.  The Immigrant Press and Its Control.  New York: Harper and Row, 1922.

Pasadeos, Yorgo.  "The Greek-American Press: A 90-Year Compendium."  Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 140-44.

Portnoy, Edward A.  “The Creation of a Jewish Cartoon Space in the New York and Warsaw Yiddish Press, 1884–1939.”  PhD dissertation, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 2008.

Ramsden, Randi Julia.  “Shaping Identity.” Wisconsin Magazine of History 100:1 (Autumn 2016): 28-43.   (German-American newspapers in Wisconsin)

Reed, Barbara S.  "A History and Content Analysis of the Pioneer English-Language American Jewish Periodical Press, 1823-1858." Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio University, 1987.

Reed, Barbara S.  "The Antebellum Jewish Press: Origins, Problems, Function."  Journalism Monographs 139 (June1993).

Rhodes, Leara D. The Ethnic Press: Shaping the American Dream. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, 2010.

Rischer, Moses, edGrandma Never Lived in America: The New Journalism of Abraham Cahan.  Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1985.

Rowan, Steven. “The German Press in St. Louis and Missouri in the Nineteenth Century: The Establishment of a Tradition.”  Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 99 (September 2005): 459–67.

Saalberg, Harvey.  "The Westliche Post of St. Louis: A Daily Newspaper for German-Americans, 1857-1938."  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1967.

Saalberg, Harvey.  “The Westliche Post of St. Louis: German Language Daily, 1857-1938.”  Journalism Quarterly 45 (Autumn 1968): 452-456.

Schoone-Jongen, Robert. “Dateline Orange City, Iowa: De Volksvriend and the Creation of Dutch American Community in the Midwest, 1874–1951.” Annals of Iowa 69 (Summer 2010): 308–331.

Shapiro, Shelby Alan. “Words to the Wives: The Jewish Press, Immigrant Women, and Identity Construction, 1895–1925.”   PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

Shore, Elliot, et al., eds., The German-American Radical Press: The Shaping of a Left Political Culture, 1850-1940. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.*

Soltes, Mordecai.  The Yiddish Press: An Americanizing Agency.  New York: Arno Press, 1969.  (originally published in 1924)

Stone, Bryan Edward. "Edgar Goldberg and the Texas Jewish Herald: Changing Coverage and Blended Identity."  Southern Jewish History 7 (2004): 71-108.

Thornton, Brian.  “The Dangerous Chicago Defender: A Study of the Newspaper’s Editorials and Letters to the Editor in 1968.” Journalism History 40:1 (Spring 2014): 40-50.

Trasciatti, Mary Ann.  “Framing the Sacco-Vanzetti Executions in the Italian American Press.”  Critical Studies in Media Communication 20:4 (December 2003): 407-430.

Vellon, Peter G.  A Great Conspiracy Against Our Race: Italian Immigrant Newspapers and the Construction of Whiteness in the Early 20th Century.  New York: New York University Press, 2014.

Wittke, Carl.  The German Language Press in America.  Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1957.

Zanoni, Elizabeth. “‘Per Voi, Signore’: Gendered Representations of Fashion, Food, and Fascism in Il Progresso Italo-Americano during the 1930s.” Journal of American Ethnic History 31 (Spring 2012): 33–71.

Zecker, Robert M. “‘Let Each Reader Judge’: Lynching, Race, and Immigrant Newspapers.” Journal of American Ethnic History 29 (Fall 2009): 31–66.

Spanish Language Press

Casillas, Delores Inéz. “Sounds of Belonging: A cultural History of Spanish-Language Radio in the United States, 1922–2004.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 2006.  

Casillas, Dolores Inés. “Sounds of Surveillance: U.S. Spanish-Language Radio Patrols La Migra.” American Quarterly 63 (September 2011): 807–829.

Casillas, Dolores Inez.  ¡Sounds of Belonging! U.S. Spanish-Language Radio and Public Advocacy.  New York: NYU Press, 2014.

Gutierrez, Felix.  "Spanish-Language Media in America: Background, Resources, History."  Journalism History 4 (Summer 1977): 34-41.

Havlin, Natalie. “Cultures of Migration: Race, Space, and the Politics of Alliance in U.S. Latina/o Print and Visual Culture, 1910–1939.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2011.

Kanellos, Nicolas, and Helvetia Martell.  Hispanic Periodicals in the United States: Origins to 1960.  Houston: Arte Publico Press, 2000.

Martinez, Ana Luisa R.  "The Voice of the People:  Pablo Cruz, El Regidor, and Mexican American Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1888-1910."  PhD dissertation, Texas Tech University, 2003.

Melendez, A. Gabriel.  So All is Not Lost: The Poetics of Print in Nuevomexicano Communities, 1834-1958.  Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

Rivas-Rodriguez, Maggie.  "Ignacio E. Lorenzo: The Mexican Exile Who Conquered San Antonio and Los Angeles."  American Journalism 21:1 (Winter 2004): 75-89.

Alternative and "Underground" Press

Armstrong, David.  A Trumpet To Arms: Alternative Media in America. Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1981.

Bizot, Jean-Francois.  Free Press: Underground & Alternative Publications, 1965-1975.  New York: Universe, 2006.

Ellis, Donna Lloyd.  “The Underground Press in America.”  Journal of Popular Culture 5:1 (Summer 1971): 102-124.

Francois-Bizot, Jean.  Free Press: Underground and Alternative Publications, 1965-1975.  New York: Universe Publishing, 2006.

Goldstein, Richard.  Reporting the Counterculture.  Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.  (Village Voice writer)

Gordon, Douglas E.  The Great Speckled Bird: Harassment of an Underground Newspaper.”  Journalism Quarterly 56 (Summer 1979): 289-295.

Glessing, Robert J. The Underground Press in America. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1970.

Kaplan, Geoff.  Power to the People: The Graphic Design of the Radical Press and the Rise of the Counterculture, 1964-1974.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Katzman, Allen, ed.  Our Time: An Anthology of Interviews from the East Village Other.  New York: Dial Press, 1972.

Leamer, Laurence.  The Paper Revolutionaries: The Rise of the Underground Press. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Lewes, J.  "The Underground Press in America (1964-1968): Outlining an Alternative, The Envisioning of an Underground."  Journal of Communication Inquiry 24:2 (October 2000): 379-400.

McMillian, John. Smoking Typewriters: The Sixties Underground Press and the Rise of Alternative Media in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Peck, Abe. Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times of the Underground Press.  New York: Pantheon, 1985.

Rips, Geoffrey.  Un-American Activities: The Campaign Against the Underground Press. San Francisco: PEN American Center, 1981.

Smith, Gaye S.  “The Underground Press in Los Angeles.”  MA thesis, University of California-Los Angeles, 1968.

Slonecker, Blake.  A New Dawn for the New Left: Liberation News Service, Montague Farm, and the Long Sixties.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Stewart, Sean.  On the Ground: An Illustrated Anecdotal History of the Sixties Underground Press in the U.S. Oakland: PM Press, 2012.

Streitmatter, Rodger.  Unspeakable: The Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Underground Press.  Boston: Faber & Faber, 1995.

Wachsberger, Ken, edVoices from the Underground: Insider Histories of the Vietnam Era Underground Press, Part Ireprint edition.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2011.

Wachsberger, Ken, edVoices from the Underground: Insider Histories of the Vietnam Era Underground Press, Part IIreprint edition.  East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2012.