Mass Communications and the Civil Rights Movement [index]

Also see Minority and Alternative Media section

Ashmore, Harry S.  Epitaph for Dixie.  New York: W.W. Norton, 1957.

Au, Cindy. “Media, Manipulation, and Self-Fashioning: Black Power Women’s Autobiography and Public Perception.” PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2010.

Baptiste, Bala. “How Disc Jockey Vernon Winslow, a.k.a. Dr. Daddy-O, Racially Integrated Radio in New Orleans and Changed the Culture of the Medium.” Louisiana History 54 (Spring 2013): 200–214.

Beasley, Maurine, and Richard R. Harlow.  Voices of Change: Southern Pulitzer Winners.  Washington DC: University Press of America, 1979.

Bedingfield, Sid. “The Dixiecrat Summer of 1948: Two South Carolina Editors—a Liberal and a Conservative—Foreshadow Modern Political Debate in the South.” American Journalism 27 (Summer 2010): 91–114.

Bedingfield, Sid.  “John H. McCray, Accommodationism, and the Framing of the Civil Rights Struggle in South Carolina, 1940-48.” Journalism History 37:2 (Summer 2011): 91-101.

Benjamin, Clark F.  "The Editorial Reaction of Selected Southern Black Newspapers to the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-68."  PhD dissertation, Howard University, 1989.

Benn, Alvin.  Reporter: Covering Civil Rights…and Wrongs in Dixie.  Bloomington: Authorhouse, 2006.

Berger, Maurice.  For All the World to See: Visual Culture and Civil Rights.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

Bodroghkozy, Aniko. Equal Time: Television and the Civil Rights Movement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012.

Bonner, Alice.  “Changing the Color of the News: Robert Maynard and the Desegregation of Daily Newspapers.” PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1999.

Booker, Simeon “A Negro Reporter at the Till Trial.” Nieman Reports (Winter 1999-2000): 136-137.

Booker, Simeon.  Shocking the Conscience: A Reporter’s Account of the Civil Rights Movement.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.   Jet magazine

Bowman, Michael Hugh. “In the Eye of the Beholder: The Little Rock Central Crisis as a Television Event.”  PhD dissertation, Arkansas State University, 2008.

Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon.  "Civil Rights Vanguard in the Deep South: Newspaper Portrayal of Fannie Lou Hamer, 1964-1977."  Journalism Quarterly 68 (1991): 515-21.

Breaux, Richard M.  “Using the Press to Fight Jim Crow at Two White Midwestern Universities, 1900–1940.” in The History of Discrimination in U.S. Education: Marginality, Agency, and Power, ed. Eileen H. Tamura, 141–64. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.  

Brown, Korey Bowers. “Souled Out: Ebony Magazine in an Age of Black Power, 1965–1975.”  PhD dissertation, Howard University, 2010.

Campbell, Yolanda Denise. “Outsiders Within: A Framing Analysis of Eight Black and White U.S. Newspapers’ Coverage of the Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1964.”  PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 2011.

Carney, Robert.  What Happened at the Atlanta Times.  Atlanta: Business Press, 1969.  

Carter, Hodding.  “A Southern Liberal Looks at Civil Rights.”  New York Times Magazine (8 August 1948).

Carter, Roy E.  “Segregation and the News: A Regional Content Study” Journalism Quarterly 34 (Winter 1957): 3-18.

Charbonneau, Stephen.  Projecting Race: Postwar America, Civil Rights, and Documentary Film.  New York: Wallflower Press, 2016.

Clark, Roy Peter, and Raymond Arsenault, edsThe Changing South of Gene Patterson: Journalism and Civil Rights, 1960-1968.  Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2002.

Classen, Steven D.  Watching Jim Crow: The Struggle over Mississippi TV, 1955-1969.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Cox, Julian, with Rebekah Jacob and Monica Karales. Controversy and Hope: The Civil Rights Photographs of James Karales. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2013.

Cumming, Douglas O.  "Finding Facts, Facing South: The Southern Education Reporting Service and the Effort to Inform the South after Brown v. Board, 1954-1960."  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2002.

Cumming, Doug.  “Building Resentment: How the Alabama Press Prepared the Ground for New York Times v. Sullivan.”  American Journalism 22:3 (Summer 2005): 7-32.

Cygan, Mary E.  "A Man of His Times: Paul Robeson and the Press, 1924-1976."  Pennsylvania History 66:1 (Winter 1999):27-46.

Daly, Charles U., ed. The Media and the Cities.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Davies, David R., edThe Press and Race: Mississippi Journalists Confront the Movement.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001.*

Davis, Rebecca Miller. “Reporting Race and Resistance in Dixie: The White Mississippi Press and Civil Rights, 1944–1964.”  PhD dissertation, University of South Carolina, 2011.

Delmont, Matthew F.  Why Busing Failed: Conservative Politics, TV News, and the Backlash to Integration.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016.

DiBari, Michael, Jr. “Advancing the Civil Rights Movement: Race and Geography of ‘Life’ Magazine’s Visual Representation, 1954–1965.”  PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 2011.

Doss, Erika.  “Revolutionary Art is a Tool for Liberation: Emory Douglas and Protest Aesthetics at The Black Panther.”  New Political Science 21:2 (1999): 245-259.

Drabble, John.  “Fighting Black Power- New Left Coalitions: Covert FBI Media Campaigns and American Cultural Discourse.”  European Journal of American Culture 27:2 (2008): 65-91.

Dudziak, Mary L.  Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Duganne, ErinaThe Self in Black and White: Race and Subjectivity in Postwar American Photography.  Hanover: Dartmouth College Press, 2010.

Durant, Sam, edBlack Panther: The Revolutionary Art of Emory Douglas.  New York: Rizzoli, 2007.

Durham, Frank D.  “Anti-Communism, Race, and Structuration: Newspaper Coverage of the Labor and Desegregation Movements in the South, 1932-40 and 1953-61.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 4:2 (Summer 2002).

Durham, Michael S. Powerful Days: The Civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore.  Rochester N.Y.: Stewart, Tabori & Change, 1991.

Eagles, Charles W.  Jonathan Daniels and Race Relations: The Evolution of a Southern Liberal.  Knoxville: University Press of Tennessee, 1982.

Edmondson, Aimee, and Earnest L. Perry Jr.  “Objectivity and ‘The Journalist’s Creed’: Local Coverage of Lucile Bluford’s Fight to Enter the University Of Missouri School Of Journalism.” Journalism History 33 (Winter 2008): 233–240.

Edmondson, Aimee.  “In Sullivan’s Shadow: The Use and Abuse of Libel Law Arising from the Civil Rights Movement, 1960-89.”  Journalism History 37:1 (Spring 2011): 27-38.

Eldridge, Lawrence Allen.  Chronicles of a Two Front War: Civil Rights and Vietnam in the African American Press.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2011.

Feldstein, Ruth.  How it Feels to be Free: Black Women Entertainers and the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Fluker, Laurie Hayer.  “The Making of a Medium and a Movement: National Broadcasting Company’s Coverage of the Civil Rights Movement.”  PhD dissertation, University of Texas, 1996.

Fisher, Paul L., and Ralph L. Lowenstein, eds.  Race and the News Media.  New York: Praeger, 1967.

Fleming, Karl.  Son of the Rough South: An Uncivil Memoir.  New York: Public Affairs Press, 2005.  (Newsweek reporter)

Flournoy, John Craig.  “Reporting the Movement in Black and White: The Emmett Till Lynching and the  Montgomery Bus Boycott.”  PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University, 2003.

Forde, Kathy Roberts. “The Fire Next Time in the Civil Sphere: Literary Journalism and Justice in America, 1963.” Journalism 15 (July 2014): 573–588.

Fraley, Todd, and Elli Lester-Roushanzamir.  “Revolutionary Leader or Deviant Thug?  A Comparative Analysis of the Chicago Tribune and Chicago Daily Defender’s Reporting on the Death of Fred Hampton.”  Howard Journal of Communications 15 (2004): 147-167.

Friedman, Barbara G.  “A National Disgrace’: Newspaper Coverage of the 1963 Birmingham Campaign in the South and Beyond.”  Journalism History 33:4 (Winter 2008):  224-232.

Gillis, William.  “Say No to Busing and the Liberal Media: Backlash Against the Louisville Courier-Journal and Louisville Times, 1975-76.” Journalism History 35:4 (Winter 2010): 216-228.

Good, Paul.  The Trouble I’ve Seen: White Journalist/Black Movement.  Washington DC: Howard University Press, 1975.

Gore, Shannon. “Civil Rights Television Documentaries in the United States: 1960–1966.”  PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, 2009.

Graham, Allison.  Framing the South: Hollywood, Television, and the Civil Rights Struggle.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Graham, Hugh Davis.  Crisis in Print: Desegregation and the Press in Tennessee.  Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1967.

Greenberg, David.  “The Idea of ‘the Liberal Media’ and its Roots in the Civil Rights Movement.”  The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics and Culture 1:2 (December 2008): 167-186.

Greer, Brenna Wynn. “Image Matters: Black Representation, Politics, and Civil Rights Work in the Mid-twentieth Century United States.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2011.

Grimes, Charlotte.  “Civil Rights and the Press: A Debate.”  Journalism Studies 6:1 (February 2005): 117-134.

Grindy, Matthew A.  “Mississippi Terror, Red Pressure: The Daily Worker’s Coverage of the Emmett Till Murder.”  Controversia 6:1 (Spring 2008): 39-66.

Hall, Kermit L. and Melvin Urofsky.  New York Times v. Sullivan: Civil Rights, Libel Law, and the Free Press.  Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.

Heron, Matt.  “Charles Moore: Civil Rights Photographer.” ASMP Bulletin (February 1993).

Hilliard, David, ed.  The Black Panther Intercommunal News Service. New York: Atria, 2007.

Hobson, Fred, ed.  South-Watching: Selected Essays by Gerald W Johnson.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Hoerl, Kristin.  “Mario van Peebles’s Panther and Popular Memories of the Black Panther Party.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 24:3 (August 2007): 206-227.

Hon, Linda Childers.  "To Redeem the Soul of America: Public Relations and the Civil Rights Movement."  Journal of Public Relations Research 9:3 (1997): 163-212.

Houck, Davis W., and Matthew A. Grindy.  Emmett Till and the Mississippi Press.  Jackson: University Press of Press, 2008.

Hrach, Thomas J.   “An Incitement to Riot: Television’s Role in the Civil Disorders in the Summer of 1967.” Journalism History 37: 3 (Fall 2011): 163-171.

Hrach, Thomas J. “Insults for Sale: The 1957 Memphis Newspaper Boycott” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 72 (Spring 2013): 28–49.

Hrach, Thomas J.  “Beyond the Bounds of Tolerance: Commercial Appeal Editorials and the 1968 Memphis Garbage Strike.”  Journalism History 41:1 (Spring 2015): 21-30.


Hrach, Thomas J.  The Riot Report and the News: How the Kerner Commission Changed Media Coverage of Black America.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2016.

 

Jackson, Sarah J.  Black Celebrity, Racial Politics, and the Press.  New York: Routledge, 2014.

Jacobs, Ronald N.  Race, Media, and the Crisis of Civil Society: From Watts to Rodney King.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Jenkins, Earnestine. "The 'Voice of Memphis': WDIA, Nat D. Williams, and Black Radio Culture in the Early Civil Rights Era."  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 65 (Fall 2006): 254-67.

Johnson, Paula B., and David O. Sears. “Black Invisibility, the Press and the Los Angeles Riot.” American Journal of Sociology 76: 4 (January 1971): 698-721.

Joseph, Peniel E., ed. The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights–Black Power Era.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Kaplan, John. "The Life Magazine Civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore."  Journalism History 25:4 (Autumn 1999): 126-39.

Kasher, Steven.  The Civil Rights Movement: A Photographic History.  New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.

Kelen, Leslie G., ed. This Light of Ours: Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2011.

Kempton, Murray.  America Comes of Age: Columns, 1955-1962.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1963.

Kern-Foxworth, Marilyn.  "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Minister, Activist, Public Opinion Leader."  Public Relations Review 18 (Fall 1992): 287-96.

Kiuchi, Yuya.  Struggles for Equal Voice: The History of African American Media Democracy.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2012.

Klein, Woody.  “News Media and Race Relations: A Self-Portrait.”  Columbia Journalism Review (Fall 1968): 42-65.

Knopf, Terry Ann. “Race, Riots, and Reporting.” Journal of Black Studies 4 No. 3 (March 1964): 303-327.

Kruse, Kevin M., and Stephen Tuck, edsFog of War: The Second World War and the Civil Rights Movement.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Kuettner, Al.  March to a Promised Land: The Civil Rights Files of a White Reporter, 1952–1968.  Sterling: Capital Books, 2006.

Kuffner, Michael R. “From Public Schools to Public Libraries: Examining the Impact of Brown v. Board of Education on the Desegregation of Public Libraries.” Alabama Law Review 59:4 (2008): 1247–1275.

Leidholdt, Alex. “Virginius Dabney and Lenoir Chambers: Two Southern Liberal Newspaper Editors Face Virginia’s Massive Resistance to Public School Integration.” American Journalism 15, no. 4 (1998): 35–68.

Lentz, Richard.  "The Resurrection of the Prophet: Martin Luther King and the Newsweeklies."  American Journalism 4:2 (1987): 59-81.

Lentz, Richard.  "The Prophet and the Citadel: News Magazine Coverage of the 1963 Birmingham Civil Rights Crisis."  Communication 10:1 (1987): 5-30.

Lentz, Richard. “Sixty Five Days in Memphis: A Study of Culture, Symbols, and the Press” in David J. Garrow, ed., We Shall Overcome: The Civil Rights Movement in the United States in the 1950’s and 1960’s, Vol. II. Brooklyn: Carlson Publishing Inc., 1989.

Lentz, Richard.  Symbols, The News Magazines and Martin Luther King. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

Lewis, Anthony.  Portrait of a Decade: A Second American Revolution.  New York: Random House, 1964.

Littlejohn, Jeffrey L., and Charles H. Ford. “Arthur D. Morse, School Desegregation, and the Making of CBS News, 1955–1964.” American Journalism 31 (Spring 2014): 166–185.

Lyle, Jack, ed.  The Black American and the Press.  Los Angeles: W. Ritchie Press, 1968.

Luders, Joseph E.  “Civil Rights Success and the Politics of Racial Violence.” Polity 37:1 (January 2005): 108-129.

Lumsen, Linda.  “Good Mothers with Guns: Framing Black Womanhood in the Black Panther, 1968-1980.”  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 86:4 (Winter 2009): 900-922.

Lyons, J. Michael.  “From Alabama to Tahrir Square: Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story Comic as a Civil Rights Narrative.”  Journalism History 41:2 (Summer 2015): 103-111.

McGill, Ralph. The South and the Southerner.  Boston: Little, Brown, 1963.

McGill, Ralph. The Best of Ralph McGill: Selected Columns.  Atlanta: Cherokee Publishing, 1980.  

Mace, Darryl Christopher. “Regional Identities and Racial Messages: The Print Media’s Stories of Emmett Till.”  PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2007.

Mace, Darryl.  In Remembrance of Emmett Till: Regional Stories and Media Responses to the Black Freedom Struggle.  Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2014.

Marsh, Harry D.  "Hodding Carter's Newspaper on School Desegregation, 1954-55."  Journalism Monographs 92 (May 1985).

Martindale, Carolyn.  The White Press and Black America.  New York: Greenwood, 1986.

Maurantonio, Nicole.  “Standing By: Police Paralysis, Race, and the 1964 Philadelphia Riot,” Journalism History 38:2 (Summer 2012): 110-121.

Mellinger, Gweneth.  “Rekindling the Fire: The Compromise that Initiated the Formal Integrations of Daily Newspaper Newsrooms.  American Journalism 25:3 (Summer 2008): 97-126.

Mellinger, Gwyneth.  Chasing Newsroom Diversity: From Jim Crow to Affirmative Action.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

Miller, Karen S. “‘Typical Slime by Joe McCarthy’: Ralph McGill and Anti-McCarthyism in the South.” American Journalism 13, no. 3 (1996): 319–32.

Mills, Kay.  Changing Channels: The Civil Rights Case that Transformed Television.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.

Moore, Eileen C.  Race Results: Hollywood vs. the Supreme Court: Ten Decades of Racial Decisions and Film. Beverly Hills: Cool Titles, 2009.

Morgan, Jo-Ann. “Huey P. Newton Enthroned: Iconic Image of Black Power.” Journal of American Culture 37 (June 2014): 129–148.

Murphee, Vanessa D.  "The Selling of Civil Rights: The Communication Section of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee."  Journalism History 29:1 (Spring 2003): 21-31.

Murphree, Vanessa.  The Selling of Civil Rights: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Use of Public Relations.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Mugleston, William F.  “Julian Harris, the Georgia Press, and the Ku Klux Klan.”  Georgia Historical Quarterly 59 (Fall 1975): 284-295.

Mumford, Kevin. “Harvesting the Crisis: The Newark Uprising, the Kerner Commission, and Writings on Riots,” in African American Urban History since World War II, ed. Kenneth L. Kusmer and Joe W. Trotter.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Nelson, Jack.  Scoop: The Evolution of a Southern Reporter.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.

Newman, Kathy M.  "The Forgotten Fifteen Million: Black Radio, the 'Negro Market,' and the Civil Rights Movement."  Radical History Review 76 (Winter 2000): 115-135.

Odum-Hinmon, Maria E.  “The Cautious Crusader: How the Atlanta Daily World Covered the Struggle for African American Rights from 1945 to 1985.”  PhD dissertation, University of Maryland- College Park, 2005.

Peterson, Jason A.  “They Deserve a Stinging Defeat: How Mississippi Newspapers’ Coverage of the 1955 Junior Rose Bowl Protected a Closed Society.” American Journalism 29:2 (Spring 2012): 93-123.

Poucher, Judith G.  “Raising Her Voice: Ruth Perry, Activist and Journalist for the Miami NAACP.”  Florida Historical Quarterly 84 (Spring 2006): 517–40.

Raiford, Leigh. “‘Come Let Us Build a New World Together’: SNCC and Photography of the Civil Rights Movement.”  American Quarterly 59 (December 2007): 1129–1157.

Raymond, Emilie.  Stars for Freedom: Hollywood, Black Celebrities, and the Civil Rights Movement.  Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism 1941-1973.  2 vols.  New York: Library of America, 2003.

Rhodes, Jane.  Framing the Black Panthers: The Spectacular Rise of a Black Power Icon.  New York: New Press, 2007.

Richardson Walton, Laura.  “In Their Own Backyard: Local Press Coverage of the Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner Murders.”  American Journalism 23:3 (Summer 2006): 29-51.

Richardson Walton, Laura.  “Organizing Resistance: The Use of Public Relations by the Citizen’s Council in Mississippi, 1954-64.” Journalism History 35:1 (Spring 2009): 23-33.

Ritchie, Donald A.  “Race, Rules, and Reporting.”  Media Studies Journal 10 (Winter 1996): 133-142.

Roberts, Gene, and Hank Klibanoff.  The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation.  New York: Knopf, 2006.

Rocksborough-Smith, Ian.  “‘Filling the Gap’: Intergenerational Black Radicalism and the Popular Front Ideals of Freedomways Magazine’s Early Years, 1961–1965.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History  31 (January 2007): 7–42.

Romano, Renee C., and Leigh Raiford, eds.  The Civil Rights Movement in American Memory.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2006.

Ross, Susan D.  "Their Rising Voices: A Study of Civil Rights, Social Movements, and Advertising in the New York Times."  Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75:3 (Autumn 1998): 518-534.

Rowan, Carl T.  South of Freedom.  New York: Knopf, 1952.

Rowan, Carl T.  Go South To Sorrow.  New York: Random House, 1957.

Rubeck, Tracie L.  “Racial Harmony through Clenched Teeth: Remembering the Civil Rights Movement in ‘Newsweek’ and the ‘CBS Evening News,’ 1990–1999.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 2006.

Rubin, Bernard, ed., Small Voices and Great Trumpets: Minorities and the Media. New York: Praeger, 1980.

Sadler, Valerie Stephanie. “A Content Analysis of Ebony’s and Life’s 1955-1965 Reporting on Black Civil Rights Movement Issues.” PhD dissertation, Ohio University, 1984.

Schwalbe, Carol B.  “Images of Brutality: The Portrayal of U.S. Racial Violence in News Photographs Published Overseas (1957–1963).”  American Journalism 23 (Fall 2006), 93–116.

Scott, Ellen C.  Cinema Civil Rights: Regulation, Repression, and Race in the Classical Hollywood Era.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2015.

Secrest, Andrew McDowd.  “In Black and White: Press Opinion and Race Relations in South Carolina, 1954-1964.”  PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1971.

Slagle, Mark.  “Mightier Than the Sword? The Black Press and the End of Racial Segregation in the U.S. Military, 1948–1954.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2010.

Sosna, Morton.  In Search of the Silent South: Southern Liberals and the Race Issue.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.

Spearman, Walter, and Sylvan Meyer.  Racial Crisis and the Press.  Atlanta: Southern Regional Council, 1960.

Spigel, Lynn and Michael Curtin, eds., The Revolution Wasn't Televised: Sixties Television and Social Conflict.  London: Routledge, 1997.

Singer, Benjamin D.  “Mass Media and Communication Processes in the Detroit Riot of 1967.”  Public Opinion Quarterly 34:2 (Summer 1970): 236-245.

Spaulding, Stacy. “‘As Though the Sixties Never Happened’: Newspaper Coverage of a First Amendment Battle Over Baltimore’s Last Blackface Act.” American Journalism 29 (Summer 2012): 59–83.

Spratt, Meg.  “When Police Dogs Attacked: Iconic News Photographs and Construction of History, Mythology, and Political Discourse.”  American Journalism 25 (Spring 2008): 85–105. Heavily illustrated.

Spruill, Larry Hawthorne.  “Southern Exposure: Photography and the Civil Rights Movement, 1955-1968.”  PhD dissertation, State University of New York- Stony Brook, 1983.

Smith, Melissa M.  "States' Rights, Intellectual Snobs, and Religious Redemption: Three Decades of George C. Wallace and the Media."  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 2003.

Stabile, Carol A.  White Victims, Black Villains: Gender, Race, and Crime News in U.S. Culture.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Staub, Michael E.  “Black Panthers, New Journalism, and the Rewriting of the Sixties.”  Representations 57 (Winter 1997): 52-72.

Stockley, Grif.  Daisy Bates: Civil Rights Crusader from Arkansas.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.

Sturkey, William, and Jon N. Hale, eds.  To Write in the Light of Freedom: The Newspapers of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2015.

Summer, David E.  "A Clash Over Race: Tennessee Governor Ellington versus CBS, 1960." Journalism Quarterly 68 (1991): 541-47.

Thornton, Brian.  “The Murder of Emmett Till: Myth, Memory, and National Magazine Response.”  Journalism History 36:2 (Summer 2010): 96-104.

Tinson, Christopher M.  “The Voice of the Black Protest Movement’:  Notes on the Liberator Magazine and Black Radicalism in the Early 1960s.”  Black Scholar 37:4 (Winter 2008): 3-15.

Tinson, Christopher Matthew. “The Fight for Freedom Must Be Fought on All Fronts: ‘Liberator’ Magazine and Black Radicalism, 1960–1971.”  PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 2010.

Tisdale, John R.  “Different Assignments, Different Perspectives: How Reporters Reconstruct the Emmett Till Civil Rights Murder Trial.” Oral History Review 20 No. 1 (Winter/Spring 2002): 39-58.

Torres, Sasha.  Black, White, and in Color: Television and Black Civil Rights.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Trice, Mike. “Religious Newspaper Coverage of the Civil Rights Struggle: 1954–1964.” PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 2006.

Tyson, Timothy B. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Ulbrich, Casandra E. “Riot or Rebellion: Media Framing and the 1967 Detroit Uprising.” PhD dissertation, Wayne State University, 2011.

Vaughan, Don Rodney. “The New York Times and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1964.”  PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 2006.

Verney, Kevern.  African Americans and US Popular Culture.  New York: Routledge, 2003.

Wagner, Terry. “America’s Civil Rights Revolution: Three Documentaries about Emmett Till’s Murder in Mississippi (1955).” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 30 (June 2010): 187–201.

Wald, Gayle.  It’s Been Beautiful: Soul! and Black Power Television.  Durham: Duke University Press, 2015.

Wallace, David J.  Massive Resistance and Media Suppression.  El Paso: LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2013.

Walton, Laura Richardson. “Segregationist Spin: The Use of the Public Relations by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission and the White Citizens’ Council, 1954–1973.”  PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 2006.

Ward, Brian, edMedia, Culture, and the Modern African-American Freedom Struggle.  Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2001.

Ward, Brian.  Radio and the Struggle for Civil Rights in the South.  Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2004.

Webb, Clive. “Freedom for All? Blacks, Jews, and the Political Censorship of White Racists in the Civil Rights Era.” American Jewish History 94 (December 2008): 267–297.

Weill, Susan. “Conserving Racial Segregation in 1954: Brown v. Board of Education and the Mississippi Daily Press.” American Journalism 16, no. 4 (1999): 77–99.

Weill, Susan.  “Hazel and the Hacksaw: Freedom Summer Coverage by the Women of the Mississippi Press.”  Journalism Studies 2:4 (November 2001): 545-561.

Weill, Susan.  In the Madhouse's Din: Civil Rights Coverage by the Mississippi Daily Press.  Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.

Weill, Susan.  “The Dixiecrats and the Mississippi Daily Press.”  Journal of Mississippi History 64:2 (2002): 259-281.

West, Patricia Scott. “Race Riot: Press Coverage of Urban Violence, 1903-1967.”  PhD Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 2004.

Whitt, Jan.  Burning Crosses and Activist Journalism: Hazel Brannon Smith and the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2010.

Williams, Julian. “Black Radio and Civil Rights: Birmingham, 1956–1963” Journal of Radio Studies 12 (May 2005): 47–60.

Williams, Julian.  “The Truth Shall Make You Free: The Mississippi Free Press, 1961-63.”  Journalism History 32:2 (Summer 2006): 106-112.

Williams, Sonja D.  Word Warrior: Richard Durham, Radio, and Freedom.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2015. 

Willis, Deborah.  “Visualizing Political Struggle: Civil Rights–Era Photography,” in American Visual Cultures, ed. David Holloway and John Beck,  New York: Continuum, 2005.

Willis, L. Anne, and Susan L. Brinson. “Press Control during Auburn University’s Desegregation.”  Journalism History 33 (Summer 2007): 70–78.

Wolseley, Roland E.  The Black Press: U.S.A.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1990.

Woodley, Jenny.  Art for Equality: The NAACP’s Cultural Campaign for Civil Rights. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2014.

Woodruff Wickham, Kathleen.  “Murder in Mississippi: The Unsolved Case of Agence French-Presse’s Paul Guihard.”  Journalism History 37:2 (Summer 2011): 102-112.