Journalism in the Late Nineteenth Century [index]

Adams, Edward E.  "Secret Combinations and Collusive Agreements: The Scripps Newspaper Empire and the Early Roots of Joint Operating Agreements." Journalism Quarterly 73 (Spring 1996): 195-205.

Agran, Edward G.  Too Good a Town: William Allen White, Community, and the Emerging Rhetoric of Middle America.  Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998.

Allan, Chris.  “Ho for Sitka: Special Correspondents and the Race to Report on the 1867 Transfer of Russian America to the United States.”  Alaska History 32:2 (Fall 2017): 1-26.

Altschuler, Glenn C. Rude Republic: Americans and Their Politics in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Ahmad, Diana L.  “The Campaign Against Smoking Opium: Nevada Journalists as Agents of Social Reform, 1875-1882. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 2003 46:4 (2003): 243-256.

American Journalism From the Practical Side.  New York: Holmes Publishing Co., 1897.

Baker, Jean H.  Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in Mid-Nineteenth Century America.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Baldasty, Gerald J. The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

Baldasty, Gerald J.  E.W. Scripps and the Business of Newspapers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Banning, Stephen A. "The Professionalization of Journalism: A Nineteenth Century Beginning." Journalism History 24:4 (Winter 1998): 157-163.

Barrineau, Nancy W.  "Journalism in the 1890s: The Origins of Theodore Dreiser's Fiction."  PhD dissertation, University of Georgia, 1988.

Barth, Gunther.  City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.  See especially Chapter 3 (Metropolitan Press) and Chapter 4 (Department Store).

Beniger, James. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Bennion, Sherlyn Cox.  Equal to the Occasion: Women Editors of the Nineteenth Century West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1990.

Berens, Charlyne, and Nancy Mitchell. “Parallel Tracks, Same Terminus: The Role of Nineteenth-Century Newspapers and Railroads in the Settlement of Nebraska.” Great Plains Quarterly 29 (Fall 2009): 287–300.

Berger, Meyer.  The Story of the New York Times, 1851-1951.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1951.

Blondheim, Menahem. News Over the Wires: The Telegraph and the Flow of Public Information in America, 1844-1897. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

Bloom, Robert L.  "Morton McMichael's North American."  Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 77:2 (April 1953): 164-

Bogle, Lori Lyn.  “Pandering to the Crowd: The American Governing Elite’s Changing Views on Mass Media and Publicity During the Nineteenth Century.”  Journalism History 43:2 (Summer 2017): 62-74.

Brake, Laurel, Bill Bell, and David Finkelstein, edsNineteenth Century Media and the Construction of Identities.  New York: Palgrave, 2000.*

Brooker-Gross, Susan R.  "Nineteenth Century News Definitions and Wire Service Usage."  Journalism Quarterly 60 (Spring 1983): 25-.

Brown, Charles H.  The Correspondents' War: Journalists and the Spanish-American War.  New York: Scribner's, 1967.

Burt, Elizabeth V.  “Shocking Atrocities in Colorado: Newspapers’ Responses to the Ludlow Massacre.” American Journalism 28:3 (Summer 2011): 61-83.

Campbell, W. Joseph. Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Campbell, W. Joseph.  The Year that Defined American Journalism: 1897 and the Clash of Paradigms.  New York: Routledge, 2006.

Caudill, Edward.  "E.L. Godkin and His (Special and Influential) View of 19th Century Journalism."  Journalism Quarterly 69 (1992): 1039-50.

Chiu, Herman B.  "When 1000 Words are Worth a Picture: Now Newspapers Portrayed the Chinese and Irish who Built the First Transcontinental Railroad."  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 2004.

Chiu, Herman B., and Andrew Taylor Kirk.  “Unlimited American Power: How Four California Newspapers Covered Chinese Labor and the Building of the Transcontinental Railroad, 1865-1869.” American Journalism 31:4 (Fall 2014): 507-524.

Clark, Justin T.  “Confronting the ‘Seeker of Notoriety’: Pathological Lying, the Public, and the Press, 1890-1920.”  American Journalism 34:2 (Spring 2017): 179-200.

Cloud, Barbara.  The Business of Newspapers on the Western Frontier.  Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1992.

Colbert, Ann. "Philanthropy in the Newsroom: Women's Editions of Newspapers, 1894-1896."  Journalism History 22:3 (Summer 1996): 90-99.

Connery, Thomas B.  Journalism and Realism: Rendering American Life. Evanston Northwestern University Press, 2011.

Copeland-Campbell, Thomas.  The Ladder of Journalism: How to Climb It.   New York: Allan Foreman, 1889.

Cordell, Ryan, and Abby Mullen.  “Fugitive Verses: The Circulation of Poems in Nineteenth-Century American Newspapers.”  American Periodicals 27:1 (2017): 29-52.

Coultrap-McQuin, Susan.  Doing Literary Business: American Women Writers in the Nineteenth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Coward, John M.  “Making Images on the Indian Frontier: The Adventures of Special Artist Theodore Davis.”  Journalism History 36:3 (Fall 2010): 151-168.

Coward, John M.  “The Princess and the Squaw: The Construction of Native American Women in the Pictorial Press.” American Journalism 31:1 (Winter 2014): 71-99.

Coward, John M.  Indians Illustrated: The Image of Native Americans in the Pictorial Press.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016.

Cronin, Mary M., and William E. Huntzicker.  “Popular Chinese Images and the “Coming Man” of 1870,” Journalism History 38:2 (Summer 2012): 86-99.

Cronin, Mary M. “An Almost Undiscovered Country: Frank Leslie’s 1890 Alaska Expedition and the Tradition of Gilded Age Adventure Journalism.” Journalism History 42:1 (Spring 2016): 24-32.

Cummings, Amos Jay. A Remarkable Curiosity: Dispatches from a New York City Journalist?s 1873 Railroad Trip across the American West, ed. Jerald T. Milanich. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2008.

Curtin, Patricia A.  "From Pity to Necessity: How National Events Shaped Coverage of the Plains Indian War."  American Journalism 12:1 (Winter 1995): 3-21.

Davis, Elmer.  History of the New York Times, 1851-1921.  New York: Times Company, 1921.

Davis, Michael.  "Forced to Tramp: The Perspective of the Labor Press, 1870-1900." in Walking to Work: Tramps in America, 1790-1935.  Eric H Monkkenen, ed.  Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

DiGirolamo, Vincent.  "The Black Newsboy: Black Child in a White Myth."  Columbia Journal of American Studies 4:1 (2000): 63-92.

Dicken-Garcia, Hazel.  Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth Century America. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Dillon, Michael J. “Edward H. Butler’s Buffalo News and the Crisis of Labor, 1877–1892: From Populist to Patrician.” American Journalism 16, no. 1 (1999): 41–58.

Dillon, Michael.  "Satanic Journalism and Its Fate:  The Scripps Chain Strikes Out in Buffalo."  American Journalism 20 (Spring 2003): 57-82.

Domke, David S.  "The Press, Social Change, and Race Relations in the Late Nineteenth Century." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1996.

Dooley, Patricia L.  Taking Their Place: Journalists and the Making of an Occupation.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Douglas, George H.  The Golden Age of the Newspaper.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Dowling, David. “The Nineteenth-Century Weekly Press and the Tumultuous Career of Journalist Leon Lewis.” Journalism History 39 (Fall 2013): 156–167.

Dryer, Trevor D. “‘All the News That’s Fit to Print’: The New York Times, ‘Yellow’ Journalism, and the Criminal Trial, 1898–1902.”  Nevada Law Journal 8 (Winter 2008): 541–69.

Dworkin, Mark J.  American Mythmaker: Walter Noble Burns and the Legend of Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, and Joaquin Murrieta.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016.


Ennis, Ron W.  “Bethlehem Steelworkers, the Press, and the Struggle for the Eight-Hour Day.”  Pennsylvania History 83:3 (Summer 2016): 337-365.

Erickson, John Edward.  "Newspapers and Social Values: Chicago Journalism, 1890-1910."  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.

Evensen, Bruce J. "Expecting a Blessing of Unusual Magnitude: Moody, Mass Media, and Gilded Age Revival." Journalism History 24:1 (Winter 1998): 26-36.

Ferre, John.  "Sunday Newspapers and the Decline of Protestant Authority in the United States."  American Journalism 10 (Winter-Spring 1993): 7-22.

Folkerts, Jean.  "Functions of the Reform Press." Journalism History 12 (Spring 1985): 22.

Franke, Warren T.  "Investigative Exposure in the Nineteenth Century: The Journalistic Heritage of the Muckrakers." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1974.

Franke, Warren T.  "An Argument in Defense of Sensationalism: Probing the Popular and Historiographical Concept." Journalism History 5 (1978): 70-73.

Freedman, Estelle B. “‘Crimes Which Startle and Horrify’: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870–1900.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 20 (September 2011): 465–497.

Frisken, Amanda. “Obscenity, Free Speech, and ‘Sporting News’ in 1870s America.” Journal of American Studies 42 (December 2008): 537–577.

Frisken, Amanda.  Victoria Woodhull's Sexual Revolution: Political Theater and the Popular Press in Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Fuhlhage, Michael J. “Eastern American Correspondents and the Othering of Mexicans in the Nineteenth-Century Popular Press.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, 2010.

Fulhage, Michael.  “Brave Old Spaniards and Indolent Mexicans: J. Ross Browne, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, and the Social Construction of Off-Whiteness in the 1860s.” American Journalism 31:1 (Winter 2014): 100-126.

Gates, Sharon Joyce. “Adolph Ochs: Learning What’s Fit to Print.” American Journalism 8, no. 4 (1991): 228–29.

Gentzkow, Matthew, Edward L. Glaeser, and Claudia Goldin.  “The Rise of the Fourth Estate: How Newspapers Became Informative and Why It Mattered,” in Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America’s Economic History, ed. Edward L. Glaeser and Claudia Goldin, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Gerdts, William H.  “Chicago is Rushing Past Everything:  The Rise of American Art Journalism in the Midwest, from the Development of the Railroad to the Chicago Fire.”  American Art Journal 27: 1/2 (1995-1996): 38-83.

Gleason, Timothy W.  The Watchdog Concept: The Press and the Courts in 19th Century America.  Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1990.

Gorn, Elliot J.  "The Wicked World: The National Police Gazette and Gilded Age America."  Media Studies Journal 6:1 (Winter 1992): 1-15.

Gramling, Oliver. AP: The Story of the News.  Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1969.

Gray, Lee E.  “Type and Building Type: Newspaper Office Buildings in Nineteenth Century New York,” in Roberta Moundry, ed., The American Skyscraper: Cultural Histories.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Gregg, Leigh F.  "The First Amendment in the 19th Century: Journalists' Privilege and Congressional Investigation." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1984.

Guber, Deborah Lynn. ““Make of Them Grand Parks, Owned in Common”: The Role of Newspaper Editorials in Promoting the Adirondack Park, 1864–1894.” Journal of Policy History 22 (no. 4, 2010): 423–449.

Hachten, William A.  "The Metropolitan Sunday Newspaper in the United States: A Study of Trends in Content and Practices."  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1960

Halttunen, Karen.  Murder Most Foul: The Killer and the American Gothic Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Hansen, Bert.  “New Images of a New Medicine: Visual Evidence for the Widespread Popularity of Therapeutic Discoveries in America after 1885.”  Bulletin of the History of Medicine 73:4 (Winter 1999): 629-678.

Harmon, Mark D.  "The New York Times and the Theft of the Presidential Election of 1876."  Journal of American Culture 10:2 (Summer 1987): 35-41.

Harrison, James G.  “American Newspaper Journalism as Described in American Novels of the Nineteenth Century.”  Phd dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1945.

Harrison, James.  “Nineteenth Century American Novels on American Journalism.”  Journalism Quarterly 22 (September 1945): 215-224 and (December 1945): 335-345.

Hart, Jack R. "Horatio Alger in the Newsroom: Social Origins of American Editors." Journalism Quarterly 53 (1976): 14-20.

Harter, Eugene C.  Boilerplating America: The Hidden Newspaper.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991.

Hays, Robert, ed.  Editorializing the ‘Indian Problem’: The New York Times on Native Americans, 1860-1900.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 2007.

Holbo, Paul S.  Tarnished Expansion: The Alaska Scandal, the Press, and Congress.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983.

Hong, Nathaniel.  "Constructing the Anarchist Beast in American Periodical Literature, 1880-1903."  Critical Studies in Mass Communication 9 (March 1992): 110-130.

Hopper, Jennifer Rose.  “Reexamining the Nineteenth-Century Presidency and Partisan Press: The Case of President Grant and the Whiskey Ring Scandal.”  Social Science History 42:1 (January 2018): 109-133.

Hutton, Frankie, and Barbara Straus Reed, edsOutsiders in 19th Century Press History: Multicultural Perspectives.  Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Press, 1995.

Johanningsmeier, Charles.  Fiction and the American Literary Marketplace: The Role of Newspaper Syndicates, 1860-1900.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Johanningsmeier, Charles.  “The 1894 Syndicated Newspaper Appearances of The Red Badge of Courage.”  American Literary Realism 40:3 (Spring 2008): 226-247.

Jones, Robert B. “The Press in the Election: Ending Tennessee’s Reconstruction.”  Tennessee Historical Quarterly 65 (Winter 2006–2007): 320–341.

Juergens, George.  Joseph Pulitzer and the New York World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Junger, Richard. Becoming the Second City: Chicago’s Mass News Media, 1833-1898. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Kaplan, Richard L.  Politics and the American Press: The Rise of Objectivity, 1865-1920.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Kaplan, Richard L.  “Press, Paper, and the Public Sphere.” Media History 21: 1 (February 2015): 42-54.

Keller, Morton.  Affairs of State: Public Life in Late 19th Century America.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.

Kitch, Carolyn L. "The Courage to Call Things by Their Right Names: Fanny Fern, Feminine Sympathy, and the Feminist Issues in Nineteenth-Century American Journalism." American Journalism 13:3 (1996): 286-303.

Knight, Denise D. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William Randolph Hearst, and the Practice of Ethical Journalism.” American Journalism 11, no. 4 (1994): 336–47.

Kobre, Sidney.  The Yellow Press and Gilded Age Journalism.  Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1964.

Knight, Oliver.  Following the Indian Wars: The Story of Newspaper Correspondents Among the Indian Campaigners.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960.

Knights, Peter R.  "The Press Association War of 1866-67." Journalism Monographs No. 6 (December 1967).

Kunzle, David.  The History of the Comic Strip: The Nineteenth Century.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Lewis, Charles.  “Wise Decisions: A Frontier Newspaper’s Coverage of the Dakota Conflict.”  American Journalism 28:2 (Spring 2011): 48-80.   (Mankato Record)

Lloyd, John P. “Labor’s Rebellion: Albert Parsons, Joseph Medill, and the Legacy of the Civil War in the Strike of 1877 in Chicago.” Journal of Illinois History 10 (Autumn 2007): 166–90.

Lutes, Jean M.  "Into the Madhouse with Nellie Bly: Girl Stunt Reporting in Late Nineteenth Century America."  American Quarterly 54 (June 2002): 217-253.

Luxon, Norval N.  Niles' Weekly Register: News Magazine of the Nineteenth Century.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1947.

McCluskey, Audrey T.  "Representing Race: Mary McLeod Bethune and the Press in the Jim Crow Era."  Western Journal of Black Studies 23 (Winter 1999): 236-245.

McKivigan, John.  Forgotten Firebrand: James Redpath and the Making of Nineteenth Century America.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.

McMahon, Clan T.  “Caricaturing Race and Nation in the Irish-American Press, 1870-1880: A Transnational Perspective.”  Journal of American Ethnic History 33:2 (Winter 2014): 33-56.

McNenly, Linda Scarangella. “Foe, Friend, or Critic: Native Performers with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show and Discourses of Conquest and Friendship in Newspaper Reports.” American Indian Quarterly 38 (Spring 2014): 143–176.

McWilliams, James.  Mark Twain in the St. Louis Post Dispatch, 1874-1891.  Albany: Winston Publishing Co., 1997.

Mann, Russell A.  “Investigative Journalism in the Gilded Age: A Study of the Detective Journalism of Melville E. Stone and the Chicago Morning News, 1881-1888.”  Phd dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1977.

Menke, Richard. “Media in America, 1881: Garfield, Guiteau, Bell, Whitman,” Critical Inquiry 31 (Spring 2005): 638­66.

Mindich, David.  Just the Facts: How Objectivity Came to Define American Journalism. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Mueller, James E.  Shooting Arrows and Slinging Mud: Custer, the Press, and the Little Bighorn.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Musser, Charles.  Politicking and Emergent Media: US Presidential Elections of the 1890s.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016.

Nalbach, Alex.  "Poisoned at the Source? Telegraphic News Services and Big Business in the Nineteenth Century."  Business History Review 77:4 (Winter 2003): 577-610.

Nasaw, David.  The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. Boston: Mariner Books, 2000.

Natale, Simone.  Supernatural Entertainments: Victorian Spiritualism and the Rise of Modern Media Culture.  Philadelphia: Penn State University Press, 2016.

Nevin, Allan.  The Evening Post: A Century of Journalism.  New York: Boni & Liveright, 1921.

Nord, David Paul.  "The Business Values of American Newspapers: The 19th Century Watershed in Chicago." Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 265-73.

Nord, David Paul. Communities of Journalism: A History of American Newspapers and Their Readers.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

North, Simon N.D.  History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States.  Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1884.

Olsson, Jan.  “Pressing Matters: Media Crusades Before the Nickelodeons.”  Film History 27:2 (2015): 105-139.

Osthaus, Carl R.  Partisans of the Southern Press: Editorial Spokesmen of the Nineteenth Century. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

O'Brien, Frank M.  The Story of the Sun, New York: 1833-1928.  New York: Appleton, 1928.

Olasky, Marvin N.  “Opposing Abortion Clinics: A New York Times 1871 Crusade.”  Journalism Quarterly 63:2 (Summer 1986): 305-310.

Petrova, Maria. “Newspapers and Parties: How Advertising Revenues Created an Independent Press.” American Political Science Review 105 (November 2011): 790–808.

Philips, Melville.  The Making of a Newspaper: Experiences of Certain Representative American Journalists Related by Themselves.  New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1893.

Pickett, Calder. "Technology and the New York Press in the 19th Century." Journalism Quarterly 48 (1960): 398-407.

Popp, Richard K. “Information, Industrialization, and the Business of Press Clippings, 1880–1925.”  Journal of American History 101 (September 2014): 427–453.

Proctor, Ben.  William Randolph Hearst: The Early Years, 1863-1910.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Pryor, John C.  "A Violation of Sanctities: The Interrogation of the Popular Press in the Novels of Howells, James, Wharton, and Dreiser."  PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1994.

Quinn, Katrina J.  “Across the Continent…and Still the Republic: Inscribing Nationhood in Samuel Bowles’s Newspaper Letters of 1865.”  American Journalism 31:4 (Fall 2014): 468-489.

Rammelkamp, Julian.  Pulitzer’s Post-Dispatch. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.

Reel, Guy.  “Dudes, ‘Unnatural Crimes,’ and the ‘Curious Couple’: The National Police Gazette’s Oblique Coverage of Alternative Gender Roles in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Journalism History 41:2 (Summer 2015): 85-92.

Reid, Whitelaw.  Some Newspaper Tendencies.  New York: Holt, 1879.

Reilly, Hugh J. Native American: Yesterday and Today: The Frontier Newspapers and the Convergence of the Plains Indian Wars. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.

Reilly, Hugh J. Bound to Have Blood: Frontier Newspapers and the Plains Indian Wars. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.

Reilly, Hugh J.  The Frontier Newspapers and the Coverage of the Plains Indian Wars.  Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.

Riffenburgh, Beau.  The Myth of the Explorer: The Press, Sensationalism, and Geographical Discovery.  New York: Belhaven, 1993.

Risley, Ford. “The Savannah Morning News As a Penny Paper: Independent, But Hardly Neutral.” American Journalism 16, no. 4 (1999): 19–36.

Ritchie, Donald A. Press Gallery: The Rise of the Washington Correspondent. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Roberts, Nancy. "'Ten Thousand Tongues' Speaking for Peace: Purposes and Strategies of the Nineteenth-Century Peace Advocacy Press." Journalism History 21:1 Winter 1995): 16-28.

Robertson, Michael. “Stephen Crane’s New York City Journalism and the Oft-Told Tale.” American Journalism 9, no. 1 (1992): 7–22.

Rodgers, Ronald R.  “The Social Gospel and the News.”  Journalism and Communication Monographs 13:2 (Summer 2011).

Rogers, Ronald R.  The Struggle for the Soul of Journalism: The Pulpit Versus the Press, 1823-1923.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2018.

Roggenkamp, KarynNarrating the News: New Journalism and Literary Genre in Late Nineteenth-Century American Newspapers and Fiction.  Kent, OH:  Kent State University Press, 2005.

Rondinone, Troy. The Great Industrial War: Framing Class Conflict in the Media, 1865-1950. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Rosebault, Charles J.  When Dana Was the Sun.  New York: R.M. McBride, 1931.

Ross, Marc.  "John Swinton, Journalist and Reformer: The Active Years, 1858-1887."  PhD dissertation, New York University, 1969.

Rumble, Walker. "A Showdown of the 'Swifts:' Women Compositors, Dime Museums, and the Boston Typesetting Races of 1886."  New England Quarterly 71 (December 1998): 615-628.

Rutenbeck, Jeffrey B.  "Editorial Perception of Newspaper Independence and the Presidential Campaign of 1872: An Ideological Turning Point for American Journalism." Journalism History (Spring 1989): 13-22.

Rutenbeck, Jeffrey B. "The Rise of Independent Newspapers in the 1870s: A Transformation in American Journalism." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1990.

Rutenbeck,  Jeffrey B.  "The Stagnation and Decline of Partisan Journalism in the Late Nineteenth Century."  American Journalism 10 (Winter-Spring 1993): 38-80.

Ryfe, David M.  "News, Culture, and Public Life: A Study of 19th Century American Journalism."  Journalism Studies 7:1 (2006): 60-77.

Sachsman, David B., S. Kittrell Rushing, and Roy Morris Jr., eds.  Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press.  West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2009.

Saum, Lewis O.  “James William ‘Phocion’ Howard of the Chicago Tribune Reports the Aftermath of the Little Bighorn Disaster” Journal of Illinois History 9 (Summer 2006): 82–94.

Saxton, Alexander.  "Problems of Class and Race in the Origins of the Mass Circulation Press."  American Quarterly 36 (Summer 1984): 211-234.

Schiller, Daniel I. Objectivity and the News: The Public and the Rise of Commercial Journalism.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.

Shudson, Michael.  Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers.  New York: Basic Books, 1978.

Simon, Rita J. and Susan H. Alexander.  The Ambivalent Welcome: Print Media, Public Opinion, and Immigration.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993.

Smith, Culver H.  The Press, Politics, and Patronage: The American Government's Use of Newspapers, 1789-1875.  Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1977.

Smythe, Ted Curtis. "The Reporter, 1880-1900: Working Conditions and Their Influence on the News." Journalism History 7:1 (Spring 1980): 2-8.

Smythe, Ted Curtis. "The Diffusion of the Urban Daily, 1850-1900."  Journalism History 28 (Summer 2002): 73-84.

Smythe, Ted Curtis.  The Gilded Age Press, 1865-1900.  Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.

Sneed, Donald.  “Newspapers Call for Swift Justice: A Study of the McKinley Assassination.”  Journalism Quarterly 65:2 (Summer 1988): 360-368.  (page #?)

Solomon, Martha M., ed A Voice of Their Own: The Woman Suffrage Press, 1840-1910. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1991.

Soderlund, Gretchen.  Sex Trafficking, Scandal, and the Transformation of Journalism, 1885-1917.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. 

Spencer, David R. "Unequal Partners: Gender Relationships in Victorian Radical Journalism."  American Journalism 14:3-4 (1997): 441-59.

Sproat, John G.  The Best Men: Liberal Reformers in Gilded Age America.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Steele, Janet E.  The Sun Shines for All: Journalism and Ideology in the Life of Charles A. Dana. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1993.

Stern, Madeline B., edPublishers for Mass Entertainment in Nineteenth Century America.  Boston: G.K.Hall, 1980.

Stevens, John D.  Sensationalism and the New York Press. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

Streckfuss, Richard.  "Objectivity in Journalism: A Search and a Reassessment."  Journalism Quarterly 67 (1990): 973-83.

Summers, Mark W.  The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865-1878. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Sumpter, Randall S. “Learning the ‘Outsider’ Profession: Serial Advice Columns in The Journalist.American Journalism 27 (Summer 2010): 7–26.

Sumpter, Randall.  “Practical Reporting: Late 19th Century Journalistic Standards and Rule Breaking.”  American Journalism 30:1 (Winter 2013): 44-64.

Rogers, Ronald R.  The Struggle for the Soul of Journalism: The Pulpit Versus the Press, 1823-1923.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2018.


Theis, Clifford F.  “Polls and Elections: The Chicago Record Poll and the Election of 1896.”  Presidential Studies Quarterly 48:1 (March 2018): 127-138.

Thomas, John L.  Alternative America: Henry George, Edward Bellamy, Henry Demarest Lloyd, and the Adversary Tradition.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.

Thomas, Samuel J.  "Holding the Tiger: Mugwump Cartoonists in Tammany Hall in Gilded Age New York."  New York History 82 (Spring 2001): 155-182.

Thorn, William J.  “Hudson’s History of Journalism Criticized by his Contemporaries.”  Journalism Quarterly 57 (Spring 1980): 99-106.

Thorp, Robert K.  Marse Henry and the Negro: A New Perspective,” Journalism Quarterly 46 (Autumn 1969): 467-474.

Trotti, Michael Ayers.  The Body in the Reservoir: Murder and Sensationalism in the South.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Tucher, Andie. "In Search of Jenkins: Taste, Style, and Credibility in Gilded Age Journalism." Journalism History 27 (Summer 2001): 50-55.

Turner, Hy B.  When Giants Ruled: The Story of Park Row, New York’s Great Newspaper Street.  New York: Fordham University Press, 1999.

Wallace, Aurora.  "The Architecture of News: Nineteenth Century Newspaper Buildings in New York."  PhD dissertation, McGill University (Canada), 2000.

Wallace, Aurora.  “A Height Deemed Appalling: Nineteenth-Century New York Newspaper Buildings.  Journalism History 31:4 (Winter 2006): 178-189.

White, Richard Grant.  "Morals and Manners of Journalism."  The Galaxy (December 1869): 840-847.

Wilson, John P., “Building His Own Legend: Billy the Kid and the Media,” New Mexico Historical Review, 82 (Spring 2007), 221–35.